|Abstract: ||以電影導演身份聞名於世的David Lynch（1946 - ），多年來同時涉獵各領域視覺藝術創作，攝影媒材亦在其列。2014年，英國倫敦攝影家藝廊舉辦「工廠相片」（The Factory Photographs）攝影展， 選取Lynch 1980年至2000年間於歐陸及美國等地拍攝的80餘幅黑白工廠相片展出。工廠／工業一直以來是Lynch藝術生涯中重要的創作母題。此系列作品中，傾斜不穩定的構圖，幽暗不安的氛圍，既容易使人聯想至其影片標誌性的詭譎、神秘特質；同時藝術家尤其傾向機械結構所具備的抽象美感，以及工廠荒地透露的情緒與質地，為「工廠相片」打開多層次的解讀可能。|
本論文第一章聚焦攝影媒材，首先整理分析工廠系列攝影慣常聚焦的工廠類型母題，勾勒Lynch「工廠相片」的概貌；結合工業攝影史脈絡，就創作動機、鏡頭運用等面向與歐美其他工業景觀作品進行異同比較。其次著重探討廢棄工廠所代表的荒地／廢墟意象，由此引發關於Lynch獨特的美學觀的探討。第二章則回溯Lynch繪畫中蘊含工業及機械元素的作品，探尋其風格演變，同時與廿世紀初「機器美學」的浪潮及前衛畫派進行對比，證明在相似的表現形式下，Lynch的繪畫作品具備不盡相同的內涵。以此為線索，將其工業系列攝影置於二、三零年代「新視覺」派的脈絡，再探Lynch工廠相片的風格手法，強調其在攝影創作中的延續性，以及與繪畫媒材的區隔。第三章關注電影藝術，主要以Lynch的劇情片《橡皮頭》與《內陸帝國》為類比樣本，詳細剖析「工廠」在動態影像與靜照中的不同意涵、各自的敘事可能；以及工廠所代表的空間隱喻，在現實社會與影像世界中可能擔當的角色。Lynch以相機定格的破敗工廠，恐懼與美感並行，黑暗與樂觀共存，因攝影媒材的特性，使其基於不同的對比脈絡，可以發現豐富多樣的詮釋角度。;David Lynch (1946- ), best known as an American film director, has been involved in various visual art domains during his career. The exhibition “David Lynch: The Factory Photographs” held in The Photographers’ Gallery in early 2014, showed the black and white photographs taken by Lynch in disused industrial areas in Central Europe, the UK and the USA from 1980 to 2000. The “industrial motif” has become a repeated theme in Lynch’s work; in the factory photographs, the recurrent upward angle in framing, and the unsettling dark ambiance, both evoke Lynchian uncanny and mysterious scenarios. The artist’s special emphasis on abstract aesthetics of mechanical structures, as well as the mood and texture in the industrial wastelands, open up the series to diverse interpretations.
My first chapter begins with the general analysis of the catalogue The Factory Photographs, indicating the motifs of Lynch’s images. By reviewing the history of industrial landscape photography, and comparing Lynch’s images with the relevant works of other photographers, we see the difference in terms of technology, style and intention. The derelict factories, as a symbol of industrial ruin or wasteland, remain beautiful in Lynch’s eye, through which we discover his unique view and aesthetic attitude towards the decaying industrial architecture. In the second chapter, I discuss Lynch’s industrial-related drawings and paintings by comparing them with the machine aesthetics and avant-garde art trends between the first and second world wars. There also exist the traces of avant-garde photography, especially the New Vision, in Lynch’s factory photographs. Lynch treats drawing and photography as distinct media, as the tension and sublimity of industry are underlined in the photographs. The third chapter mainly focuses on the comparison between the “factory” in Lynch’s film and photography. With Eraserhead, we find the similar industrial atmosphere or composition in both moving pictures and still images, but it assumes distinct meaning and narrative possibility. In Inland Empire, the “factory” can be regarded as the metaphor of urban space, which plays a complex and bizarre role in the real life and image world. The dilapidated factory spaces captured by Lynch’s camera, express darkness and optimism, thrill and beauty in the same series; with the characteristics of photography, according to the diverse contexts, we may find a variety of interpretations