|摘要: ||本論文以王陽明「心外無物」的思想探賾為題。首先，從王陽明心學的三個面向而言之，一是，自精一而言，道心即是良知；二是，從「心即理」、「良知即是天理」與「良知即是易」的理論關係，展開良知即是易之理；三是，以人作為天地之心，確立三才中，人在天地之間的主體性。自精一而言良知，是一種收攝關係；從道心到天地之心，是一種推擴關係。其次，從王陽明對於「物」的兩個面向而言之，一是，以王陽明探究「格物致知」的生命經歷，闡述他對格物致知有別於朱子的解釋；二是，從王陽明生命中的三個事件，分別是「禪僧坐關事件」、「遇鐵柱宮道士事件」、「龍場悟道事件」，說明王陽明對於物的「親情聯結」到「自然聯結」的具體實踐。再者，論「心外無物」的思想。一是，釐清王陽明的心物關係的特色是：物是心的作用，物無固定之稱，「心外無物」亦不是固定的名稱；二是，從「岩中花樹與我心」、「鬼神萬物與靈明」說明王陽明「心外無物」的思想。由上，本論文由王陽明心學的三個面向，到王陽明對於物的兩個面向，釐清王陽明心物關係的特色，進而探究王陽明「心外無物」的思想。王陽明早期思想以「格物致知」為起點，中期思想提出「心外無物」，到晚期思想提出最重要的學術宗旨「致良知」。從王陽明的心物關係而言，王陽明不僅僅只在個人的心中作工夫，而是以親親為本的「親情聯結」，推擴至天地萬物一體為末的「自然聯結」，本末為一體之仁。王陽明「心外無物」的思想，強調「致良知」是落實於天地萬物的生活世界。;The purpose of this study is to investigate Wang Yangming’s theory of “There is nothing outside our mind-heart (xin).” It attempts to identify the feature of his theory of the relation between mind-heart and thing (wu) by tackling the three aspects of Wang’s philosophy of “mind-heart” and the two dimensions of his idea of “thing.”|
Firstly, it discusses the three aspects of Wang’s philosophy of “mind-heart” and points out that, when it is considered from the point of single-mindedness (jing-yi), the conscience of Dao is the intuitive conscience to know right from wrong. It also states, when the theoretic relations among the mind-heart is principle(li), the intuitive conscience is the principle of heaven and the intuitive conscience is the changes(yi), the intuitive conscience is the principle of changes; and when human beings are regarded as the mind-heart of the universe, the subjectivity of human beings in the universe is established. The aspect of the single-mindness of intuitive conscience reflects its concentration and attention-focusing while the transformation from the mind-heart of Dao to the mind-heart of the universe presents its extension.
Then, it moved to the two dimensions of Wang’s idea of “thing.” It argues that the difference between his understanding of idea of “investigating thing and extending conscience” and that of Zhuxi can be exposed in terms of Wang’s life experience of investigating thing and extending conscience. Besides, it tries to exhibit the implications of the practice of connection of human relations and the connection of nature of thing in light of his three life events, that is, the experience of sitting in mediation, the encounter of a Daoist priest and the enlightenment at Longchang.
Based on the foregoing inquiries, it analyzes Wang’s theory of “There is nothing outside our mind-heart.” It indicates that the characteristics of Wang’s view on the relation between mind-heart and thing is that thing is the function of mind-heart and there is no fixed term for thing and therefore the idea of there is no exact reference for the idea of “There is nothing outside our mind-heart.” Meanwhile, it uses the cases of Wang’s discourses on “flower tree in the rock and my mind-heart” and “spirits, everything and clear intelligence” to interpret the theory of “There is nothing outside our mind-heart.”
Wang began his career with the study of “investigating thing and extending conscience”, then he turned to the idea of “There is nothing outside our mind-heart” and finally established his most important thesis of “extending intuitive conscience.” Wang did not only cultivate inwardly his own mind-heart but also practiced his idea in the connection of human relations, that is, loving parents and relatives, and then extended it into the connection of nature, i.e. the all under heaven. The theme of Wang’s theory of “There is nothing outside our mind-heart” is to actualize the thesis of “extending intuitive conscience” in the life-world.