In 1913, when Mao Zedong was studying in The Fourth Normal College of Hunan, he started to build up his early thought of saving the nation in planned. At that period, his main belief was not a political revolution but reform. During the May Fourth Campaign in 1919, Mao not only had several political activities but also had a chance to know the newest socialism from Europe, which includes communism. Not until the failure of Hunan Autonomy Campaign, Mao started to turn his core belief into communism and joined the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
At the very beginning, the CCP had their activities stick to Marxism and focus on developing labor movement. Mao started the movement with the same idea in Hunan. But during that period, the warlords had great power, which could affect the result of the labor movement, and the whole movement was getting worse and worse. According to this situation, Communist International instructed the CCP started to contact with the KMT. And at the year of 1923, these two parties became the KMT-CCP Alliance. They were doing well at the beginning, however, there were lots of conflict between them. After the 1st National Congress of the KMT, their contradictions grew in breadth. Mao was in Shanghai at that time, and he was affected due to the situation.
Mao went back to Hunan to recuperate in the end of 1924. During this period, he found the possibility of peasants, and believed they are the most important members of revolution. After he went back to work, he kept stressing the value of peasants and was the Director of the Peasant Movement Training Institute (PMTI). During Northern Expeditions, peasant movement in Hunan was out of control and became violence, and Mao applauded their movement. However, this kind of movement incurred the KMT-CCP split. After this, the CCP changed their action into violence, but different from the most movements were made of labor in town, Mao organized peasant farmers in rural area and fired up violence revolution.