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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/73918


    Title: 元季四大畫家之藝文生活及詩歌創作;Artistic Life and Poetry of Four Major Painters of Late Yuan Dynasty
    Authors: 沈雅文;Shen, Ya-Wen
    Contributors: 中國文學系
    Keywords: 黃公望;吳鎮;倪瓚;王蒙;文人雅集;題畫詩;Huang Gongwang;Wu Zhen;Ni Zan;Wang Meng;literati gathering;poems within paintings
    Date: 2017-07-18
    Issue Date: 2017-10-27 12:54:13 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本文以元末江南地區最具聲望的四大畫家黃公望(1269-1354?)、吳鎮(1280-1354)、倪瓚(1301-1374)及王蒙(1308-1385)為研究對象,採取跨領域的研究視角,由歷史、社會、哲學、宗教、藝術、審美、心理等層面,以交遊、隱逸、題畫等主題探究四家詩歌中所反映的藝文生活與情志內涵。

    四家中,黃公望、倪瓚、王蒙藉由文人雅集切磋詩畫,致使詩歌風格、書畫理念,逐漸形成某種審美風尚,影響詩畫發展,雅集圖文更昇華成逸樂的文化意象。此外,雅集為雅集主人和與會文人擴展人脈、提高名聲,交相互惠的活動,到元末甚至成為庇蔭之所。

    四家皆具有濟世情懷,卻因政治環境險峻而選擇隱逸,求道問佛,於詩歌中流露了社會的不公、避亂的無奈、漂泊的愁苦與掙扎、對淨土的企盼與物我融通的嚮往,蘊含三教融合的逸居況味,注重現實生活的品質與精神氣度的提升,為元代文人因應時代變遷的一種實象。在題畫詩方面,四家將花木竹石的多元韻致與比德傳統,極致發揮在詩畫中,轉化為回應時代考驗的見證;並於詩畫中融入洞天福地、桃源、輞川、漁家等恬適象徵,成為理想的心靈圖景,聊以慰藉。就詩畫的關係而言,花木竹石題畫詩具有再造畫面、超越畫面以及擴充畫意的特色,而畫面僅具有表彰節操的象徵意義;山水題畫詩因題詩作畫時間的差異,使詩境和畫境有時不甚相合,反映詩人的情思轉折,且題詩章法往往與畫面層次吻合,可能與一河兩岸式的構圖成規相關。詩與畫皆具托物寓意,抒發性情的功能。
    ;With Huang Gongwang (1269- c. 1354), Wu Zhen (1280-1354), Ni Zan (1301-1374) and Wang Meng (1308-1385), the four most reputed painters in the Jiangnan area during the late Yuan Dynasty as the object of research, the thesis took a cross-disciplinary perspective and examined the artistic life, connoted feelings and devotions reflected in their poetry from the aspects of history, society, philosophy, religion, art, aesthetics, psychology, etc. and through motifs of social intercourse, reclusion, writing within painting, etc.

    Among the four masters, Huang Gongwang, Ni Zan and Wang Meng discussed poetry and painting and exchanged through literati gatherings. Consequently, the style of their poetry and their ideas of painting and calligraphy gradually came to form a certain aesthetic trend which influenced the development of poetry and painting with literati gathering pictures and texts being sublimated into a comfortable and leisure cultural imagery. In addition, as a mutually beneficial activity, literati gathering was an occasion for the host and participating literati to expand connection and improve reputation. By the late Yuan Dynasty, it even became a refugee.

    All the four masters bore the ambition of helping people. Yet because of the perilous political situation, they opted for reclusion and turned to Buddhism for seeking Dao. Their poetry conveyed social injustice, the reluctance of taking refuge, the bitterness and struggle of wander, the aspiration for Pure Land and the longing for a harmonious integration of things and self. It contained the state of living in retreat of the three integrated religions, stresses the quality of real life and the elevation of spirit and bearing, representing an actual phenomenon of Yuan Dynasty literati in responding to the mutation of the epoch. In terms of writing poems in paintings, in the four masters’ poetry and painting, diverse charms of flower, wood, bamboo and stone, as well as the tradition of implying one’s quality in things are amply elaborated. These are transformed into testimonies responding to the trial of the times. Besides, cozy symbols like divine and blessed land, the Land of Peach Blossoms, Wangchuan, fishermen’s homes, etc. are integrated as ideal mental-scape, as a means of relief. In terms of the relation of poetry and painting, poems in paintings with flower, wood, bamboo and stone are characterized by recreating, surpassing the tableau and expanding the pictorial connotation while the tableau only carries symbolic meanings of honoring moral integrity. Because of the lapse between writing poetry and making painting, the poetic and the pictorial moods in Shan shui poems within paintings sometimes do not entirely correspond to one other, reflecting turns in the poet’s emotion and thoughts. Also, the method of inscribing poems often corresponds to layers of the painting, which may relate to compositional conventions of “two banks of one river”. Both poetry and painting have the function of implying meaning through things and expressing one’s temperament.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

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