|摘要: ||整體節慶發展過程中，針對舊有節慶轉向新興節慶的轉化過程，以及創造出的新的活動意義，仍然未有太多的深入探討的研究出現，且在節慶型態轉變上的研究，常會以靜態的方式直接認定節慶轉化後就只屬於某種特定的類型，卻對節慶轉化的動態過程有所忽略，但實際上節慶在轉化過程中可能包含著各種類型的同時存在。因此，為了克服以往靜態的定義，本文在研究觀點上採以du Gay Paul等人在1997年提出的「文化迴路」理論架構裡頭的五種範疇，包含了生產（production）、消費（consumption）、規範（regulation）、再現（representation）、認同（identity），讓節慶中各種模糊抽象的文化內涵，能夠比較清楚的被區分出來。此外，選擇以龍潭端午節慶個案的原因，是因為它擁有的特殊之處在於，它不僅是傳統節慶賦予「節慶化」的代表，也同時具有「客家化」的現象，這雙重轉化所創造出的活動內涵與意義，使得本研究能夠指出以往在節慶探討上，不易被發現的節慶轉化與再創層面，故期望應用本文的研究觀點，開啟節慶研究的不同方向，以作為往後研究者的參考藍本。本文使用質化與量化的混合式研究取徑，包含文獻分析法、質性內容分析法、深度訪談法以及問卷調查法，針對地方節慶的轉化與再創造的過程當中牽涉到的因素進行探索。透過本研究案例發現，首先，原屬於大中華文化歷史中的龍潭端午節慶活動內涵，產生階段性的新變化，包含民俗宗教、體育競賽、觀光旅遊及客家事務多種不同的性質兼容並蓄，在龍舟競渡活動上更朝向「專業化」、「競技化」的發展。其次，龍潭端午節慶轉化過程當中，2009年後因為客委會的介入，多了另一層客家活動的身分，卻同時讓活動產生客家身分認同問題。第三，客家身分認同問題，卻也讓節慶「客家化」過程面臨挑戰，這樣的挑戰來自於地方與外界人士對於活動算不算是客家活動的困惑。然而，透過問卷調查與深入訪談結果發現，我們可以有新方向來解釋。第四，面對節慶客家化的挑戰，是需要重新將客家活動的認定態度上，朝向更開放多元的角度去思考。從本研究案例中可以發現到其實客家人長久以來在生活上與運動發展是密不可分，因此，這或許可以作為重新型塑客家節慶活動時的新方向，讓大家對於客家印象不僅是停留在客委會習慣性使用的客家元素花布與桐花的客家符號身上，而是連結更多關於人在土地上的生活。 客家身處在我們生活的各層面，如同桃園龍潭端午節慶的龍舟競渡活動，是客家庄中一直長久舉辦的活動，更能夠代表客家人在運動發展的成功經驗。透過本個案研究開創新的思維，讓客家不在局限於某特定的印象中，才可以將客家文化永久延續與傳承。;In the development process of overall festivals, there are still not much in-depth study of festivals transformation process, when old festivals transform to the new and create a new activity significance. The transformation of festivals type in the studies, they often use a static way to directly identify the festivals only belong to a certain type after the festivals transformation, but the dynamic process of festivals have been ignored. In the fact, festivals in the conversion process may contain with the various types of coexistence. Therefore, we used in order to overcome the static definition of the past which by employing the concept of “circuit of culture”, proposed by Paul du Gay et al. in 1997. The concept of “circuit of culture” studied according to five basic and interlinked dimensions: production, consumption, regulation, representation, and identity, which can be clearly distinguished out the festivals which all kinds of meaning and fuzzy abstract cultural connotation. In addition, a case of Dragon Boat Festival in Longtan Taoyuan is unique, that it is not only the representatives of the “Festivalization” but also the “Hakkalization” phenomenon in traditional festival, and so we choose it. This dissertation tries to point out that the study of previous festivals cannot easily be found the transformation and re-creation of local festivals. We expected to use the views of our thesis, which to open the different directions of festive research as a reference model for future researchers.|
The approaches are of qualification, including literature analysis, qualitative context-analysis, in-depth interview and questionnaires, which can explore the factors involved in the process of transformation and re-creation of local festivals. Through the study of this case, we found that classical history of Dragon Boat Festival in Longtan Taoyuan has been had a new stage of change ,including “Folklore religion”,
“Sports competition”, “Sightseeing” and “Hakka affairs” which is the new meaning of this case. The development of dragon boat races are became more “professional” and “competitive” in this case. Secondly, when Hakka Affairs Council involved in the process of transformation for the Dragon Boat Festival in Longtan Taoyuan, which has been had another Hakka activity status since 2009. However, it also has Hakka identity problems at the same time. Thirdly, the Hakkalization of this festival has been faced challenge such as comes from the local and outsiders, who thought the activities are belonging to Hakka activities or not. However, we found the new directions which can explain these perplexities from the questionnaire and in-depth interviews with the results. Fourthly, faceing with the challenges of “Hakkalization”, we need to give our thinking more opening and diverse about attitude for identified the activities. The development of sports have been closed to Hakka life for a long time which we found the fact from the study. Therefore, this is a reason as a new way to the shape of Hakka festivals, so that everyone for the Hakka impression is not only focused on customary use of the Hakka elements and the flowers of the Hakka symbol. Hakka living in all aspects of our lives as Dragon Boat Festival in Longtan Taoyuan, which has been held in Hakka villages for a while, on behalf of the Hakka people in the successful development of sports experience. We should not confine to a particular impression of Hakka so we create a new thinking by the case study which can be a permanent extension and inheritance of Hakka culture.