;During the Qing dynasty, Shufan of the Feng-Shan Eight Tribes gradually moved to the hillside areas of Pingtung Plain and developed a new living space. This study explored the ancestral spirits of villagers living in Lao-pi, Neipu, Pingtung and examined the relationship of the Xia-dan-shui-she (下淡水社) with other ethnic groups, the changes of in their Laozu (ancestral spirits) , and their self-identity under the influence of the Han Chinese. According to historical archives from the Qing dynasty and the Japanese colonial era, the indigenous people of Xia-dan-shui-she gradually moved to the hillside areas for their new settlements in today’s Lao-pi Village because of the reclamation of the Han Chinese immigrants and the protection system implemented by the regime of Qianlong . However, because of land disputes between the Holo and Hakka, the introduction of Catholic beliefs, and the cultural influence of Puppet Fan (today’s Payuan aborigines) culture during the late Qing dynasty, the ancestral spirits of the Xia-dan-shui people in Lao-pi Village changed and became diverse. A review on the household registration information from Japanese colonial era reveals that Shufan in Lao-pi Village considered themselves to be the Makatao aborigines until the end of the Japanese colonial era. After World War II, their large ancestral festival was no longer held and the descendants of Shufan eventually moved the Goddness of Bottle to an ancestral temple. Compared with the belief of Hakka and the establishment of the Grain Temple, the ancestral belief of Makatao declined, reflecting the change of influences from different ethnic communities.