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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/75998

    Title: 戰後臺灣山地國民學校的發展──以制度面為中心(1945-1968);The Development of Elementary Schools of Indigenous Township in the Post-War Taiwan: A Focus on the System (1945-1968)
    Authors: 呂佳璇;Lu, Chia-Hsuan
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 山地國民學校;原住民族;原住民族教育;山地鄉;elementary schools of indigenous township;indigenous peoples;indigenous education;indigenous township
    Date: 2018-01-23
    Issue Date: 2018-04-13 11:30:17 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 山地國民學校即戰後臺灣省行政長官公署接管日治時期教育所及國民學校,改組並新成立隸屬「山地鄉」的國民教育設施,學生主要為「山地原住民族」。本文旨在以制度為中心,運用政府公報、檔案、調查報告書等,探究其發展,斷限自1945年迄1968年九年國民教育實施前。為遂行「山地平地化」,山地國民學校以澈底推行「國語」、訓練農業生產技術、實施衛生教育為方針。後者以兒童的個人身體狀態著眼,期待其影響家庭環境,帶動「山地鄉」的公共衛生。經費方面,由於「山地鄉」的財政未能獨立,學校經費主要為省庫支給,用於校舍修建、設備充實、就學補助、教員獎勵及補助等,然收撥程序繁冗或為數甚少,皆影響校務。而儘管以多管道羅致人力,教員不足仍為常態,同時為推行「國語」,解任未具備該能力者。關於課程及教材,當局以「文化落差」為由,編製「山地適用教科書」,旨在將「原住民族」塑造成「中華民族」。畢業生升學則以「山地學生獎學金考選」保送入學師範學校、中等學校、職業學校為管道,除名額失衡之疑慮,錄取者因學力、交通等而輟學亦為問題,受限於經費,無以改訂。藉上述考查,明晰戰後初期,當局以「文化程度遲滯」為由,在教育制度上,將山地國民學校差別化,教學實踐則主張「山地平地化」。「山地原住民族」在此二重結構中,被動地納入以「同化」作為手段的教育體制。;Elementary schools of indigenous township (山地國民學校) were national educational facilities in indigenous townships (山地鄉) that were reorganized and established when the Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Office took over schools of indigenous children (教育所) and elementary schools (國民學校) under the education system of the Japanese Colonial Period after the World War II. Most of the students were san-di indigenous peoples (山地原住民族). This article aimed to focus on the system as the theme, and examined its development between 1945 and the implementation of the nine-year compulsory education in 1968 by using government notices, archives, and investigation reports. In execution of the “assimilation” of indigenous peoples, elementary schools of indigenous township followed the guidelines of fully promoting Mandarin, providing training on agricultural production technology, and administering health education. By focusing on children’s personal health conditions through health education, the schools expected the children to have an impact on their family environment and drive the public health in indigenous townships. In respective to funding, since the finance of indigenous townships was not independent, the schools’ funding mainly came from the provincial treasury. The funds were used to renovate schools, purchase equipment, and provide student assistance, school staff rewards, as well as subsidies. However, either the application or the granting processes were cumbersome or the funds were small, and both affected school operations. Despite staff recruitment through different channels, school staff remained consistently on shortage. Meanwhile, unqualified staff was dismissed for the promotion of Mandarin. Regarding the curriculum and teaching materials, the authority used “cultural lag” as an excuse and prepared special textbooks for the indigenous curriculum (山地適用教科書). The purpose was to shape the indigenous peoples as Chinese Nation (中華民族). After graduation, students were recommended to normal schools, secondary schools, and vocational schools for admission with indigenous student scholarships. In addition to concerns about an imbalanced number of admissions, successful candidates could drop out due to reasons such as academic competence and traffic. Limited by the amount of funding, they were unable to make other considerations. Based on the above investigation, the authority in the early post-war period used “slow cultural development” as an excuse for the differentiation of indigenous elementary schools’ education system. The schools focused on the principle of “assimilating” indigenous peoples. Under such a dual structure, the indigenous peoples were passively incorporated into an education system that used “assimilation” as a means of manipulation.
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