戒嚴時期(1949-1987)、「入出境管理機關」的組成，大致可分為人員「入出境審查管制」及「入出境證照查驗」兩大類，依業務屬性分別由軍、警機關掌管。國人部分入出境管制業務隸屬軍政機關掌管；國境線上國內外人士入出國境證照查驗及外人管制業務隸屬警政機關負責，並受軍方在業務上督導。 本論文主要分三個階段論述臺灣從1949年實施戒嚴(Martial law)到1987年解嚴(Lift martial law )以來這段期間，入出境管理機關之任務、職掌以及轉變。第一階段(1949-1972)，從臺灣省政府成立初期到陳誠主政時期宣布戒嚴開始，臺灣省警備總司令部接手入出境管理(管制)權後，對國人入出境的影響及變化。第二階段(1972-1987)接續探討原隸屬軍政體系之入出境管理機關(境管處)，於1972年將管轄權移轉到警政體系(境管局)，當時尚處於戒嚴期間亦無專屬入出境相關法令可循，係依據警總頒布之「戒嚴令」執行，故就其移轉之「實質性」作為本文探討主軸。第三階段(1987-1992)綜合討論解嚴後在境管政策上管理機關配合政府革新須求，有關境管法規的研訂、入出國手續的簡化及開放程度等，在終止動員戡亂後警總正式走入歷史作為本文結論。 回顧臺灣在實施戒嚴後，不但是政治上的轉變、經濟與社會各方面都起了很大的變化。解嚴後在改革聲浪下，境管機關從軍政機關全面掌管到退出，改由警政機關管轄到完全接手後，開啟了我國入出境管理新紀元。 ;The essay is mainly divided into three stages to discuss. Relating to the duties, tasks and transition of entry-exit administration of Taiwan under the martial law in effect between 1948 to 1987 promulgated by the governor of Taiwan Province, Chen Cheng.
First stage (1949-1972), starting from the impacts and changes on entry-exit flow of citizen on border control after Chen Cheng as the governor of Taiwan Province announced the impostion of Taiwan martial law and the Ministry of National Defense of Republic of China(ROC) had fully taken in 1949, until the order was lifted by the president Chiang Ching-kuo in 1987.
The second stage (1972-1987) continues illustrating the original of the entry and exit administration which is belonged to the Ministry of National Defense. In 1972, the jurisdiction was transferred to the police system. However, at the same time the entry- exit laws are still based on the“martial law”, therefore the transfer process to discuss is the most important part of the essay.
The third stage (1987-1992) discusses how the border line related institutions collaborate with the government under the currency of reform, such as establishing the immigration policies, the degree of openness and simplifying the entry-exit formalities. Taiwan ends martial law in 1987 and the influence dies away will be the conclusion to this essay.
Looking back to the time when martial law was imposed in Taiwan, there were great transitions and changes on political, economic and social aspects. After the lifting of martial law, the entry and exit administration had experienced a continuos asking of democracy reform and set forth to a new era. The entry and exit administration was fully taken over by the institution of police and completely replaced the original martial institution.