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|Authors: ||賴維凱;Lai, Wei-Kai|
|Issue Date: ||2018-08-31 13:58:21 (UTC+8)|
;This article begins with the formation and migration of the Hakka, She and Yao, and then discusses their correspondences from the phonetics and vocabulary.
Grammatically comparing with She and Yao, in addition to this, we also discussed the origin of the Hakka name from She and Yao people, and obtained the following conclusions:
1. In terms of consonants, the biggest difference is that in addition to voiced obstruent and voiced affricate consonant, Yao has a complete voiceless nasal sound, and there is only “ŋ” in She, but the Southern Fujiang Hakka dialect still retains a complete voiceless nasal sound. As for the Hakka dialect, the phenomenon of ancient voiced consonants expressing aspiration is not a matter of fact. Although there is also such a phenomenon in She, the inside is not exactly the same. Yao-Min do not have this phenomenon.
2. The tail vowel is worthy of in-depth exploration. It is generally believed that the Hakka dialect “preserves” the complete nasal and consonant endings. Therefore, the other dialects are incomplete and become “weakened” or “disappeared”. However, from a point of view “reserved”, there will be different conclusions. There are almost no end-of-k and -Ɂ from She and Yao, which allows us to reflect on tail vowel of Hakka, She, and Yao dialects.
3. Hakka and She all have the phenomenon of “the forth tone was combind to the first tone”. Whether or not it is related to the combind 1 and 4 of the dialects of Zau Min is still relevant. The phenomenon of " the forth tone was combind to the first tone " was also said to have occurred in the minority of discourse words in the Hakka dialects. They are not necessarily unrelated.
4. The "core words", "character words", or commonly used basic words in Hakka, She and Yao dialects are distinguished by the first 100 words and the last 100 words of Swadesh. There are many relative words in the latter 100 words, although they conform to the predecessors. The "contact relationship," "alliance relations," or "bottom relationship," but according to the results of in-depth exploration and supplementation with other data, we believe that there is an "inheritance relationship," that is, homology.
5. From a cultural language point of view, the contents of the lyrics of Hakka folk song and She folk songs are very similar, not necessarily from the folk song of Hakka folk songs; the customs of weddings and mourning of Hakka people such as “tɕhia-loŋ” and “saŋ-kuŋ”; the four surnames , such as Pan, Lan, Lei, Zhong, the relationship between the "pan" surname and the "Peng" surname; the "Moi" name, the "Lang" name, and the names of the She and Yao dialects throughout Fujian and Guangdong, all displaying Hakka, She and Yao Inseparable relations. In language fact, we may not be able to deny that part of the speech and vocabulary in She and Yao are influenced by Chinese dialects or Hakka dialects. However, culturally, many She and Yao people have existed since ancient times, and it cannot be proved that Hakka culture must be used to dye She and Yao culture.
6. Although the issue of "word order" may not be the only connection between Hakka and minority languages, adverbial quaternion and animal affixes may not be unique to Hakka, She and Yao. We can extend to the entire Southeastern dialect and Southern minority languages. Perhaps it can be seen that the grammar level of Hakka, She and Yao is indeed deeply influenced by the ancient Vietnamese language.
7.In the past ten years, Professor Seo-Gim Lo has tried to claim from the self-proclaimed She and Hakka: “ho” ne, shan “ha”, ”hak”ngin find out the relationship. In addition to the plane comparison, he also cited the classics and “ The time-honored comparison of the culture of the mountain shows that "ho", "ha", and "hak" are homonyms with different synonyms. We think that there is no problem with this, but if this argument is established, many of the "linguistic facts" in-depth phenomenon must be changed accordingly, and it is no longer a question of weak language learning a strong language.
|Appears in Collections:||[客家語文研究所] 博碩士論文|
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