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    題名: 客、畲、瑤語言關係研究
    作者: 賴維凱;Lai, Wei-Kai
    貢獻者: 客家語文暨社會科學學系
    關鍵詞: 客家話;畲話;瑤族勉語;核心詞;重疊結構
    日期: 2018-07-09
    上傳時間: 2018-08-31 13:58:21 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 本文從客家、畲族與瑤族的形成與遷徙談起,再從三者的語音(文白異讀、特殊陰平調)、詞彙(核心詞、文化詞、特徵詞)探討彼此之間的對應關係,最後在語法上與畲、瑤做一比較,除此,我們還從畲、瑤族稱探討了客家名稱的來源,得到以下幾點結論:
    1.在聲母方面,最大的差異在於勉語除了有濁塞音及濁塞擦音外,還有完整的清化鼻音,而畲語只有一個,不過閩南客家話仍保有完整的清化鼻音。至於客家話「古全濁聲母不分平仄皆送氣」的現象,畲話、畲語雖然也有這種現象,但內部並非完全一致,勉語則無此現象。
    2.韻尾現象是值得深入探討的,一般認為客家話「保留」了完整的鼻音韻尾和塞音韻尾,所以其他次方言的不完整,成了「弱化」或「消失」,但從「保留」的角度來看就會有不一樣的結論。從畲話、畲語、勉語幾乎沒有k韻尾以及發達的喉塞音Ɂ,可以讓我們對客、畲、瑤語的韻尾關係再反思。
    3.客家話和畲話都有「濁上歸陰平」現象,是否和勉語藻敏方言1、4調合併有關,目前未定論,仍值得細究。畲話「清去歸陰平」現象,在客家話的少數去聲字也有此表現,兩者未必沒有關聯。
    4.客、畲、瑤語的「核心詞」、「特徵詞」或稱常用的基本詞,以Swadesh的前100和後100詞來區分,後100詞的關係詞較多,雖然符合前人所說的「接觸關係」、「聯盟關係」或「底層關係」,但根據我們深入探討並輔以其他資料的結果,我們認為這中間是有「承繼關係」的,亦即同源。
    5.從文化語言來看,客家山歌和畲族lau(嬲)歌歌詞的內容大同小異,未必是畲歌源於客家山歌;客畲瑤的婚喪習俗,如「且郎」、「覡公」;四大姓氏,如盤、藍、雷、鍾,「盤」姓與「彭」姓的關係;「妹」名、「郎」名以及遍布於福建、廣東的畲、瑤地名,在在都顯示客畲瑤密不可分的關係,在語言事實上或許我們無法否定畲瑤部分語音、詞彙受漢語方言或客家方言影響,但在文化上,許多畲瑤自古就有的,並無法證明客家一定是習染畲瑤文化而來。
    6.「語序」問題雖然未必是客家話和少數民族語言唯一的繫聯關係,狀語後置、動物詞綴也未必是客家話和畲瑤獨有,擴大到整個東南方言和南方少數民族語言,或許能看出客、畲、瑤語在語法層面,確實深受古越語影響深遠。
    7.羅肇錦先生近十幾年來試圖從畲族和客家的自稱:「活」聶-山「哈」-「客」(家)人找出繫聯關係,除了平面的比較,還引古典籍及「山」的文化做歷時的比較,證明「活」、「哈」、「客」都是同音同義不同字,我們認為這是沒有問題的,不過如果這論點一旦成立,很多「語言事實」的深層現象就必須因此而改變,不再是弱勢語言學習強勢語言的問題而已。
    ;This article begins with the formation and migration of the Hakka, She and Yao, and then discusses their correspondences from the phonetics and vocabulary.
    Grammatically comparing with She and Yao, in addition to this, we also discussed the origin of the Hakka name from She and Yao people, and obtained the following conclusions:
    1. In terms of consonants, the biggest difference is that in addition to voiced obstruent and voiced affricate consonant, Yao has a complete voiceless nasal sound, and there is only “ŋ” in She, but the Southern Fujiang Hakka dialect still retains a complete voiceless nasal sound. As for the Hakka dialect, the phenomenon of ancient voiced consonants expressing aspiration is not a matter of fact. Although there is also such a phenomenon in She, the inside is not exactly the same. Yao-Min do not have this phenomenon.
    2. The tail vowel is worthy of in-depth exploration. It is generally believed that the Hakka dialect “preserves” the complete nasal and consonant endings. Therefore, the other dialects are incomplete and become “weakened” or “disappeared”. However, from a point of view “reserved”, there will be different conclusions. There are almost no end-of-k and -Ɂ from She and Yao, which allows us to reflect on tail vowel of Hakka, She, and Yao dialects.
    3. Hakka and She all have the phenomenon of “the forth tone was combind to the first tone”. Whether or not it is related to the combind 1 and 4 of the dialects of Zau Min is still relevant. The phenomenon of " the forth tone was combind to the first tone " was also said to have occurred in the minority of discourse words in the Hakka dialects. They are not necessarily unrelated.
    4. The "core words", "character words", or commonly used basic words in Hakka, She and Yao dialects are distinguished by the first 100 words and the last 100 words of Swadesh. There are many relative words in the latter 100 words, although they conform to the predecessors. The "contact relationship," "alliance relations," or "bottom relationship," but according to the results of in-depth exploration and supplementation with other data, we believe that there is an "inheritance relationship," that is, homology.
    5. From a cultural language point of view, the contents of the lyrics of Hakka folk song and She folk songs are very similar, not necessarily from the folk song of Hakka folk songs; the customs of weddings and mourning of Hakka people such as “tɕhia-loŋ” and “saŋ-kuŋ”; the four surnames , such as Pan, Lan, Lei, Zhong, the relationship between the "pan" surname and the "Peng" surname; the "Moi" name, the "Lang" name, and the names of the She and Yao dialects throughout Fujian and Guangdong, all displaying Hakka, She and Yao Inseparable relations. In language fact, we may not be able to deny that part of the speech and vocabulary in She and Yao are influenced by Chinese dialects or Hakka dialects. However, culturally, many She and Yao people have existed since ancient times, and it cannot be proved that Hakka culture must be used to dye She and Yao culture.
    6. Although the issue of "word order" may not be the only connection between Hakka and minority languages, adverbial quaternion and animal affixes may not be unique to Hakka, She and Yao. We can extend to the entire Southeastern dialect and Southern minority languages. Perhaps it can be seen that the grammar level of Hakka, She and Yao is indeed deeply influenced by the ancient Vietnamese language.
    7.In the past ten years, Professor Seo-Gim Lo has tried to claim from the self-proclaimed She and Hakka: “ho” ne, shan “ha”, ”hak”ngin find out the relationship. In addition to the plane comparison, he also cited the classics and “ The time-honored comparison of the culture of the mountain shows that "ho", "ha", and "hak" are homonyms with different synonyms. We think that there is no problem with this, but if this argument is established, many of the "linguistic facts" in-depth phenomenon must be changed accordingly, and it is no longer a question of weak language learning a strong language.
    顯示於類別:[客家語文研究所] 博碩士論文

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