|摘要: ||台灣閹雞技術已經有300年歷史，早期鄉下，特別是客家聚落都有替人閹雞的師傅，公雞一般在出生後6-8周就可以接受手術，因為小公雞閹（去勢）後，鬥爭性會降低，飼養長大後肉質結實，風味倍增。台灣民間飼養的傳統雞種過去一直不受政府重視，育種知識是雞農由上一代經驗傳承下來，其介紹台灣閹雞相關的文獻也很少，但是閹雞產業長久以來卻一直是市場的主流，台灣的有色雞（土雞、仿土雞）在1970〜1990年代間20多年的淘汰競爭後出現2種主要雞種，一種是飼養體型較小的雞，另一種則是體型較大的雞，但飼養期需要較長的時間，本研究藉由深入訪談，以滾雪球抽樣方式，向桃園市新屋地區、新竹縣竹北、新豐地區飼養閹雞之農戶進行實地調查，共調查閹雞飼養業者及閹雞師傅共7戶，調查結果新竹地區主要是飼養大型閹雞，以竹北、新豐地區風氣最盛。客家鄉親飼養閹雞的動機與原因，通常是用來祭祀所用，在當年度的祈福儀式中，土地伯公廟前場地上，會上演平安戲，其中最有看頭的就是閹雞比賽，在比賽過程中講求公平公開，逗趣熱鬧，離鄉的遊子們在這一天也都會回家參與祈福儀式，流露出對這塊土地的情感。閱讀相關文獻及報導後得知，中部、南部、及東部地區，經過多年的市場競爭，為了滿足消費者，大量飼養價格高的小型雞種，桃竹苗地區之客家族群則飼養大型雞種為多，飼養時間較久，需要細心照顧與耐心，把最大的閹雞獻給崇敬的神明及祖先。本研究希望透過收集更多文獻資料，及對閹雞師傅及閹雞產業進行訪談，更瞭解客家聚落飼養閹雞歷久不衰的情景未來可能發展，提供給相關單位作為參考。;Study of Capon farming industry within Hakka commnuities|
Caponization technique has continued living for well over 300 years in the history of Taiwan. During the past, there were caponizing specialists practicing the technique for poultry farms particularly within rural Hakka societies. In order to improve the quality and to enrich taste of fresh as well as to reduce aggressiveness, cockerels, within 6-8 weeks old, are surgically castrated. Bureaus, central or local, pay little attention to the cultivation of traditional capons breed; for that reason, relevant studies are rare and breeding knowledge pass down from generations to generations without leaving any written from. Nevertheless, capons remain as one of the mainstream breed in poultry market of Taiwan.Through 1970 to 1990, after intensive natural and human selection for approximately 20 years, native-breed and simulated-native-breed are the only two Taiwanese so-called coloured-landfowls in poultry farming of Taiwan. The former is smaller in body size; the latter is larger in mass and takes longer time to reach maturity. This study applied snowball sampling technique to sample 7 capon farmers among poultry farming populations in Hsinyu of Taoyuan and Chubei and Hsinfong of Hsinchu. Through in-depth interviews with the farmers, the results clearly demonstrate that ranchers in Hsinchu, especially in Chubei and Hsinfong areas, prefer growing large-size capon breed to small-size one. Hakka people keep capons as sacrificial offerings to their ancestors and village deity. During the annual ceremony at the worshipping venue in front of the village deity shrine, there are capon competitions and tradition Hakka opera, called Ping-an Si. Hakka diaspora always returned to participate in this cultural event every year to show their affections toward hometown. After reading relevant studies and reports, it is known that poultry farmers in central, southern and eastern part of Taiwan prefer small-size capon breed as mention above to satisfied customers at highly competitive poultry market since its price tends to be higher than another. Farmers in Hakka communities, especially in Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli, however, like better the large-size variety which required more patient and constant care during the process of raising as well as longer growing time. This devotion in poultry farming reflects Hakka people’s sincere respects to their ancestors and gods.By means of collecting field data and in-depth interviews with caponizing specialists and landfowls farmers, the main objective of this study is to provide comprehensive knowledge and insights of possible future development to bureaus, central or local, regarding this long-lasting culture of capon farming within Hakka people.