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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/77150


    Title: 體驗論之建構:以北宋五子「環境觀」為詮釋對象;Construction of Experientialism: Using the Environmental Thinkings of Bei Song Wu Zi as an Example
    Authors: 莊元輔;Chuang, Yuan-Fu
    Contributors: 哲學研究所
    Keywords: 體驗論;突現;隱喻;環境;北宋五子;Experientialism;emergence;metaphor;environment;Bei Song wu zi
    Date: 2018-07-24
    Issue Date: 2018-08-31 14:14:34 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 論文以環境關懷為主軸出發,探究人願意開始改變而有具體行動的動力來源問題。這樣的動力甚至是犧牲自己的利益都能產生行動的力源,並且建構一套理論合理說明何以可能,而這一理論在此稱為「體驗論」。建構出一套體驗論的方式,其目的是要說明人透過感知經驗之體察,能於特定事件引發身心之道德感知而體現於外,此一感知可視為人的一種潛能,並體驗此感知於實際生活之中,經不斷體驗、自覺後,將形成一種信念,這樣的信念背後隱含著自身最優價值的嚮望。對於自身而言這會是內心底層最重要的價值信念,更關鍵的是,這一價值信念必須是靠自己本身的行動或實踐體驗而來,換句話說,一個人最核心的價值是經由具體的實踐行為中得到印證,並且自己要求自己服從於這一體驗而來之價值信念。這樣的價值是真正能促使人產生行動力,而非只是一種紙上談兵的話語。
    以對待環境為例,人如何在自然之中藉由感知經驗對自然產生種種想法,進而形成一價值貞定。就像在自然中感覺到一種美、一種神聖或敬畏等等感受,進而可能產生出必須珍視自然的信念,這樣的信念背後由一價值觀所支撐著。這一價值觀並非外在的,而是由自己體現、體驗而來,並且由自己所遵循。根據我的研究,北宋五子的文獻中有著不少關於珍視環境的想法,而這些想法就由體現的方式展現,並且可用體驗論的方式詮釋出來。就此而言,在傳統的解釋上,並不一定只能依道德形上學的方式來理解和詮釋。例如,回到北宋五子思想中的「天」、「理」、「性」、「心」、「誠」等等概念範疇,將不再以一種實體的觀念論之,而嘗試以社會心理學的觀點、並搭配「隱喻理論」和「突現理論」所共同建構之方法,試圖詮釋為一種新的理論,這也就是體驗論。除了提供這一條可能的理論之外,其目的也是說明人的動力來源問題。歸納而言,論文嘗試解釋的方向為以下三種:
    (1) 提出人們何以能夠保護環境的動力來源問題。
    (2) 建構一套「體驗論」的基礎理論。
    (3) 北宋五子的思想系統可成為一種保護環境的生活智慧並有具體實踐性。
    論文架構全部為五個章節來展開,除了導論和結論外,中間最主要的三個章節分別為:體驗論架構之基礎、北宋五子環境觀之詮釋、體驗論建構之要件等三章節。
    ;This thesis centers on environmental concerns. The source of motivations from which people may be willing to change and take concrete actions is investigated. In particular, motivations from which people sacrifice personal benefits to perform the relevant action were examined. Accordingly, a theory of “experientialism” was constructed to provide a rational explanation of self-sacrificial action. The purpose of constructing an experientialist theory is to explain how people’s physiological and psychological sense of ethics can be triggered by their experiences of certain events, resulting in the outward demonstration of these values. This latent ethical sensibility can be seen as a person’s potential for ethical action. When this potential is stimulated in an individual by repeated experiences and self-awareness, it manifests as an ideal, which represents a fundamental belief and a basis for value judgement. This belief must be acquired through personal action and practical experience. In other words, an individual’s fundamental values are confirmed through concrete practices and behaviors; values must be demonstrated through action. Such demonstrations prove that an individual’s values are not based on empty words.
    Treatment of the environment may be considered as an example. People experience nature through their senses and generate various thoughts about nature from such experiences, leading to value formation. For instance, experiences of beauty, sanctity, or sublimity in nature may generate a belief that nature should be cherished. This belief is then supported by a value system that is not external but rather derives from the relevant individual’s experiences. An individual fully realizes these values by manifesting them through action. Several studies on the Bei Song wu zi have discussed these men’s views on cherishing the environment. The Bei Song wu zi’s active demonstration of these beliefs can be interpreted through experientialism. The metaphysical perspective of ethics is not the only method by which to analyze conventional thoughts and behaviors. For example, “tian,” “li,” “xing,” “xin,” and “cheng” from the thinkings of the Bei Song wu zi are not discussed as concrete concepts in this study. Instead, the perspective of sociopsychology is adopted along with metaphors and the theory of emergence to construct a new theory, that is, experientialism. The objective of the proposed theory is to explain the source of human motivation. In sum, the following three directions are adopted in this thesis:
    (1) A proposal is established regarding the sources of people’s motivations to protect the environment.
    (2) The fundamental theory of experientialism is constructed.
    (3) The Bei Song wu zi’s thinkings are examined, and concrete implementation of this value system is considered for its environmental protection potential.
    This thesis is divided into five chapters. In addition to the Introduction and Conclusion, the three major chapters in the middle cover the foundational structure of experientialism, an interpretation of the environmental views of the Bei Song wu zi, and the construction of experientialism.
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