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|Title: ||戰後臺灣水力發電廠的發展與困境 ─ 以石門發電廠為分析中心|
|Authors: ||陳昭良;Chen, Chao-Liang|
|Keywords: ||水力發電;石門水庫;石門發電廠;石門電廠;義興電廠;Hydropower;Shimen Reservoir;Shimen Power Plant;Yixing Power Plant|
|Issue Date: ||2018-08-31 15:02:31 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||石門水庫暨石門發電廠是國民政府遷臺後所興建的第一個集灌溉、防洪、發電、給水及觀光的多目標水力資源開發工程。石門電廠是屬於水庫式的發電系統，電廠內裝設 2 部各為 4.5 萬瓩的豎軸法蘭西斯式水輪發電機，總裝置容量為 9 萬瓩，每臺發電機年平均發電量各為 1.1 億度。後來因為石門水庫中的泥砂淤積情況非常嚴重，於是石門水庫管理局在 1973 年 9 月經由工程顧問公司的研究報告建議，完成25 公尺高的義興攔砂壩加高工程以攔截大漢溪中、下游河道形成的高低落差用來水力發電。|
此外，石門水庫管理局在 1983 年 7 月又經政府核定同意，在大漢溪上游的榮華大壩興建完成義興電廠，義興電廠是屬於調整池式的發電系統，電廠內安裝一部豎軸法蘭西斯式水輪發電機，裝置容量為 4.5 萬瓩，年平均發電量為 1.8 億度。石門電廠與義興電廠統稱石門發電廠，從 2002 年開始，這兩座電廠所發出的電力經由 161KV 雙迴路輸電線路輸送至瑞源一次變電所與臺電公司電力系統併聯後，再由臺電公司統一集體調度、輸送、營運、銷售，提供臺灣北部電力之所需。
雖然水力發電是發展最成熟的技術，但水力發電是靠天吃飯，當遇到降雨量減少、河川遭遇枯水期時，水力發電廠的發電機組就無法發電。受限臺灣河流短促、地質脆弱、優良水力發電廠址有限，已興建完成的水庫則面臨淤積嚴重及低蓄水量問題，且水庫並非以發電為優先考量，而是配合民生用水、公共給水、農業灌溉等調節政策，在枯水期以供應民生用水為優先次之才是發電，故水力發電廠有 2/3 的發電量是被迫停止發電，僅被當成在尖峰時段用來調節發電之用，此為水力發電之
發展局限。;Shimen Reservoir and Shimen Power Plant is the first multi-purpose hydraulic resource development project for irrigation, flood control, power generation, water supply and sightseeing built after the National Government moved to Taiwan.Shimen Power Plant is a reservoir-type power generation system. The power plant is equipped with two vertical axis Francis turbine generators with a total capacity of 90,000 kilowatt. The total annual
generating capacity of each generator is 1.1 billion degrees.Later, because the silt deposits in the Shimen Reservoir were very serious, the Shimen Reservoir Administration in September 1973, through the research report of the engineering consultancy company, completed the 25-meter-high Yixing sand dam heightening project to intercept the Dahan River. The high and low drops formed by the downstream channels are used for hydropower generation.
In addition, the Shimen Reservoir Administration approved the approval of the government in July 1983 to complete the Yixing Power Plant in the Ronghua Dam on the upper reaches of Dahanxi. The Yixing Power Plant is an adjustment pool type power generation system. A vertical axis method is installed in the power plant. The water heater has a capacity of 45,000 瓩 and an average annual power generation of 180 million kWh.Shimen Power Plant and Yixing Power Plant are collectively referred to as Shimen Power Plant. Since 2002, the power generated by these two power plants has been transported to the Ruiyuan Primary Substation in parallel with the Taipower Power System via a 161KV dual-circuit transmission line, and then by Taipower. The company unified collective dispatch,transportation, operation and sales to provide the power of northern Taiwan.
Although hydropower is the most mature technology to develop, hydropower is dependent on the weather. When the rainfall is reduced and the river encounters a dry season,
the hydropower plant′s generator set cannot generate electricity.Restricted rivers in Taiwan are short, geologically fragile, and the location of excellent hydropower plants is limited. The reservoirs that have been built are faced with serious siltation and low water storage problems,and the reservoirs are not based on power generation as a priority, but with people′s
livelihood, public water, agriculture. Irrigation and other adjustment policies, in the dry season, the priority is to supply electricity for people′s livelihood. Therefore, 2/3 of the hydropower plants are forced to stop generating electricity, which is only used to regulate power generation during peak hours. Limited for the development of hydropower.
|Appears in Collections:||[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文|
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