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    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/77921


    題名: 抗日戰爭期間長沙焚城之決策執行與後果;The Burninng of Changsha: A Study of Chiang Kai Sheks’s Scorched Earth Policy during China’s Resistance War against Japan
    作者: 郭家源;Kuo, Chia-Yuan
    貢獻者: 歷史研究所
    關鍵詞: 抗日戰爭;長沙大火;焦土政策;China′s Resistance War against Japan;the burning of Changsha;the Scorched Earth Policy
    日期: 2018-08-24
    上傳時間: 2018-08-31 15:03:06 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 近代中國面臨日本強勢侵略時,以抵抗的姿態來迎對。自七七事變後,蔣介石用持久戰為方針開啟全面抗戰。但是軍隊實力懸殊情況下,前方軍隊節節敗退,戰線迅速往內地進逼。因此撤退時採取「焦土政策」軍事戰略,把無法運送的物資設備、交通道路及建築物進行破壞,避免敵方取得並利用。而蔣介石鑑於武漢撤守破壞成效不佳,決定湖南省長沙在外圍戰事失利時,要將全城焚毀不予資敵,同時命令地方政府需備妥事前計畫。
      岳陽淪陷長沙頓時成為驚弓之鳥,城內已充滿緊張氣氛,在1938年11月12日湖南省主席張治中接到蔣介石密電後,即召集警備司令部司令酆悌、保安處處長徐權將計畫定案,之後由警備司令部參謀處長許權代為統籌。當晚全城戒嚴,地方部隊著手籌備計畫內容時,在11月13日凌晨,位於長沙市南門口外的社壇街首先起火,接著全城大火,百姓們倉皇逃命,葬身火窟數千人,全城燃燒至5天還有餘燼,建築物所剩無幾,成為抗日戰爭中最慘烈的犧牲品之一。
      蔣介石成立軍事法庭,迅速將首要人員處以極刑,承擔這起事件全部責任。事後動員兵力協助長沙善後工作,以安撫民心,重振抗戰士氣。
    ;In modern China, Japan’s massive aggression encountered great resistance. Since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident on July 7, Chiang Kai-shek had been ready for a full-scale and protracted war against Japan. But with constant defeat by Japanese army, Chiang’s army was forced to retreat, and the battle lines were moving inland. To keep wealth from the Japanese, Kuomintang officials made the Scorched Earth Policy, ordering the destruction of equipments, roads and buildings during the retreat. Unsatisfied with the result of destruction in Wuhan, Chiang Kai-shek decided to burn the whole city of Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan, if it could not stop the advancing Japanese army. Besides, local government was demanded to prepare for the burning plan, making sure that everything would go well.
      On November 11th, 1938, the city of Yueyang fell to the Empire of Japan, and the situation in Changsha became increasingly tense. On November 12th, the chairman of Hunan Province, Zhang Zhizhong, passed Chiang’s idea to his subordinates in a meeting. Xu Quan, director of the Staff Office of the Garrison Headquarters, was order to take command of the plan made by Feng Ti, commander of the Garrison Headquarters, and Xu Quan, director of the Security Office. However, at the dawn of November 13th, when local officials were arranging for the plan, Shetan Street outside the South Gate began to burn, and the fire soon spread to the whole city. Fleeing in panic, thousands of people lost their lives. The burning lasted for five days, which made Changsha one of the most damaged cities during China′s Resistance War against Japan.
      Later in the military tribunal set up by Chiang, those officials supposed to be responsible for the burning were executed. What’s more, troops were sent to Changsha to assist with the aftermath, soothing the masses as well as rebuilding the morale of the country.
    顯示於類別:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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