本論文提出一種新式的光學干涉儀:偏振式駐波干涉儀。此新式干涉儀整合了光學干涉系統、相位正交解相技術以及上下計數技術，可應用於長行程的位移量測，精度可達數奈米。 21世紀的工業技術皆與精密位移量測息息相關。半導體製程技術已達數個奈米等級，曝光機等機器皆需以干涉儀來輔助，才能確保作業時的正確位置。在業界中，常見的商用干涉儀有HP干涉儀、光柵干涉儀。這些干涉儀雖然具有極高的量測精度及較大的量測範圍，但架構通常體積較大且價格較昂貴，在校準及安裝上較為複雜。為了改善這些問題，我們設計了以單光束構建而成的偏振式駐波干涉儀，其優點可減少架設時所需的空間，且所使用的元件少，方便調整與校正，並搭配自行開發的相位正交解相技術、上下計數技術，可以取代目前昂貴的精密量測設備。 本系統的原理為重疊向左及向右傳遞的光線而形成駐波，再使用奈米球散射板將駐波光場散射。利用偏振干涉技術將散射出來的駐波轉換成相位正交的兩個訊號，透過反正切及解纏繞運算，取得駐波的相位變化，進而計算物件位移。實驗結果顯示，量測範圍能達到公分等級，量測解析度可達1 nm，量測靈敏度為1.35 ，量測速度極限可達1.6 mm/s。 ;In this study, a new type of optical interferometer is proposed: Polarization standing wave interferometer. This new interferometer integrates optical interference system, phase quadrature analysis technique, and up-and-down counting technique. It can be used for long-stroke displacement measurement with an accuracy of several nanometers. In the 21st century, industrial technique is strongly rely on precision displacement measurement. The semiconductor process technique has reached several nanometer levels. It is necessary to be supported by an interferometer to ensure the correct position during operation. In the industry, there are some ordinary commercial interferometers such as HP interferometers and grating interferometers. The advantages of them are extremely high measurement accuracy and a large measurement range. However, the configuration of them are usually bulky and expensive, and are complicated to calibrate and set up. In order to improve these problems, we have designed a polarized standing wave interferometer constructed with a single beam. The advantages are smaller built equipment space, the configuration uses fewer components, it is easy to adjust and calibrate, arranging with polarization interference technique and up and down counting technique. Above all it’s better than commercial interferometers. The principle of the system is to form a standing wave by overlapping the light transmitted to the left and right, and then scattering the standing wave light field by using a nanosphere scattering plate. By means of detecting the phase variations of the scattered light from the scattering plate with the polarization phase quadrature technique, the displacement can be determined precisely. The experimental results shows that the measurement range can reach the millimeter level. The measurement resolution reach 1 nm, the measurement sensitivity is 1.35 , and the maximum measurement speed reach 1.6 mm/s.