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    题名: 意在言外:晚清《萬國公報》中的德國報導
    作者: 林韋宏;Lin, Wei-Hung
    贡献者: 歷史研究所
    关键词: 傳教士;萬國公報;晚清;德國;Missionary;The Globe Magazine;Late Qing;Germany
    日期: 2019-01-30
    上传时间: 2019-04-02 15:12:35 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 普魯士在1871年擊敗法國後建立德國之後,一舉成為歐洲的強權,這個發展深受力求變法圖強的中國關注,希望能夠藉由複製「德國經驗」對抗外國勢力。在華傳教士所經營的《萬國公報》觀察到這一情勢,因而報導許多德國相關訊息,並且形塑晚清知識階層的「德國」概念,而這些概念甚至影響至今。
    《萬國公報》主要分成三種角度來報導德國,首先由於中國人對德國一無所知,因而先從德國整體政情開始介紹,像是德國的民族地緣、歷史發展。由於德國建國之後成為歐洲外交核心,因而介紹德國的外交,再者同屬皇室國家,中國對此非常感興趣,因而介紹德國皇室中的兩位皇帝威廉一世和威廉二世。第二個角度是將重點放在國家領袖,國家要能中興富強要有成功之領導人,《萬國公報》凸顯了當時三個在德國舉足輕重的人物,分別為政治方面的德國宰相俾斯麥、軍事方面的參謀總長毛奇、商業方面的克虜伯。第三個角度與晚清的軍事改革相結合,晚清政府在對外戰爭一再慘敗之餘,非常重視外國強權之軍事發展,國人亦復如此,所以德國軍事發展也在《萬國公報》中有大幅度的報導。德國軍事分成三個部分,由於德國首強於陸軍,先行介紹德國陸軍,而後德國海軍新聞逐漸變多,接著介紹德國海軍,最後再介紹可以用於軍事上的科技。
    ;Abstract
    Prussia rose to a superpower in Europe after it defeated France and founded Germany in 1871. The rise of Germany attracted the attention of Chinese intellectuals who wanted to duplicate “the German experience” in resisting the invasion of foreign powers. The Globe Magazine, a newspaper operated by foreign missionaries in China, was aware of this situation and published a great deal of information related to Germany. In turn, this shaped the concepts of “Germany” among the late Qing literati. Even up to today, these concepts still remain influential.
    The Globe Magazine covered Germany from three perspectives. First, since Chinese people knew very little of Germany, the newspaper began its introduction to Germany by a general description on its history, politics, and geography. Since Germany became a diplomatic center in Europe, Germany’s foreign relations also became a major subject in the newspaper. Moreover, both China and Germany adopted had a system of monarchy, German emperors, Wilhelm I and Wilhelm II, were also covered. The second perspective of The Globe Magazine was on the national leaders of Germany. The secret of wealth and power of a nation comes from its leaders. The Globe Magazine accentuated three key figures in Germany at the time: Chancellor Bismarck in politics, Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke in the military, and Alfred Krupp in commerce. The third perspective was related to the military reforms of the late Qing period. Having experienced a series of defeats in foreign wars, the late Qing government and its people were greatly interested in the military development of foreign powers. Thus, The Globe Magazine also contained significant reporting on German military matters. Coverage of the German military can be divided into three parts – army, navy, and military science and technology. German army was put in a prominent position because it played a key role about the rise of Germany. The Globe Magazine also gave due attention to military science and technology because they were closely related to military power of Germany.
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