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    题名: 知青問題研究——以雲和縣為例;Research on the Educated Youth—A Case Study in Yunhe County
    作者: 林喬木;Lin, Qiao-Mu
    贡献者: 中國文學系
    关键词: 知青;農民;上山下鄉;知青苦難;雲和縣
    日期: 2019-06-24
    上传时间: 2019-09-03 12:26:30 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 摘要

    「知識青年」是一個特殊年代下的特殊產物,大量初高中剛畢業的青年,服從政策分配,從城市來到農村,接受貧下中農再教育,開始了轟轟烈烈的「上山下鄉」運動。「上山下鄉」運動從上世紀六十年代末持續到上世紀八十年代初,下鄉的知識青年返城之後,許多有著深刻回憶的知青,將下放經歷轉化成文學作品,成為了 80 年代「傷痕文學」的重要組成部分。不過從現有的相關資料中,發現目前的知青研究很多集中在部分典型地區,對於其他「小地區」的知青則是研究較少,甚至有些地區的知青研究幾乎是空白,而且對農民和「失語」知青的研究也是不夠充分。
    本文採用「調查法」和「文獻研究法」。以浙江省雲和縣的知青下放點為研究取樣地,以雲和縣的知青和農民為研究對象,通過問詢訪談為研究手段,調查雲和縣部分下放點中的知青和農民農村的關係。同時找尋學界中有關「上山下鄉」運動的材料,總結出「傳統」知青的印象和「知青苦難」的相關理論,再通過研究雲和知青在「上山下鄉」運動時期的表現,進行兩者對比,觀察不同,再結合歷史材料,窺探雲和縣「上山下鄉」運動的發展狀況。
    雲和縣作為一個典型的「小地區」,在「上山下鄉」運動研究領域中,是一個幾乎從未出現過的地名。但是這個地區同樣經歷了「上山下鄉」運動,而且這裡的「上山下鄉」,似乎和許多材料以及文學作品中提到的「上山下鄉」運動都有所不同。農民和知青的交流可以以很和諧的方式來進行,有些知青在下鄉之前已經知道了大致返城的時間,對下放的抗拒性並沒有多大,為了獲得「工農兵學員」的資格,也有知青也會主動申請下鄉。總而言之,從雲和縣知青的事跡中,我們可以也看到「上山下鄉」運動在一些「小地區」的另一套運作模式。;The so called “the Educated Youths(知識青年)” is a product of a special era, during which policies aimed at huge number of new graduates from high schools and redistributed them from urban to rural areas to receive the education about live of being poor farmers. The size of this migration was considered so huge that it was called “上山下鄉(the campaign to go to the countryside)” or “Down to the Countryside Movement”. The campaign lasted from the late 60’s to early 80’s, in the late stage of which, many of the Educated Youths returned to cities and tried to share their memories in the form of literatures. Literatures of this period are generally categorized as the “Scar Literature”. However, the materials held in hand relevant to the campaign mainly focus on cases from areas where most Educated Youths were sent to, whereas datas from other areas where local Educated Youths were more sparsely settled are neglected. In addition, researches are limited on the local farmers and the Educated Youths who could not voice.
    This article will apply investigation method, along side with reading other materials to demonstrate the nature of the relationships between the Educated Youths and the local villagers in Yunhe County. Interviews with the the locals and the Youths were conducted and samples are collected from several local bases of the campaign. Meanwhile, by looking at articles relevant to 上山下鄉 in the academia, this article will also attempt to conclude theories on the popular image of the Educated Youths and the “Struggling Educated Youths”, These theories will then be compared with facts during the campaign about the Educated Youths. The last part of this article will attempt to discuss the stages of 上山下鄉 in Yunhe county.
    Yunhe county as a typical remote area which is hardly mentioned in studies of 上山下鄉. Yet Yunhe indeed witnessed this political campaign and the experiment of which presented through many materials and literatures seems to be unique. The exchanges between local farmers and the graduates carried out peacefully in general. Some Educated Youths even knew when would they be able to return to cities before setting out for villages, and had less objection to work in villages. In order to acquire qualification as a “workers/farmers/soldier student”, some Educated Youths asked to be sent to villages. In conclusion, events of Educated Youths in Yunhe demonstrates an alternative running mode for 上山下鄉 campaign.
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