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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/80264


    Title: 《論康有為經世儒學的理論基礎與孔門傳承重構》
    Authors: 關啟匡;HONG, KWAN KAI
    Contributors: 中國文學系
    Keywords: 康有為;經世儒學;孔子;孔門弟子;晚清;Kang Youwei;Confucian political thought;Confucius;Confucius disciple;Late Qing
    Date: 2019-07-11
    Issue Date: 2019-09-03 12:27:11 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 康有為總體的儒學著作涵著經世儒學的思想導向,其核心問題為:中國的儒家傳統何以能推動光緒朝的政治改革?為了回應這個問題,康氏所主張的儒家人性論,是其改革動力根源上的理論基礎。

    本論文的重點在於掘發出貫穿於康氏豐富論著中的思想脈絡。筆者發現透過梳理康氏的人性論和工夫實踐,才足以勾勒出通貫其儒學著作的一條思想主軸。康氏在此思想主軸下所闡釋的孟、荀思想,提出了獨特的合會孟荀的人性論、工夫論之氣性觀點,實不容忽視。

    所以,筆者需釐清康氏合會孟、荀人性論,以開顯孔子氣性的人性論、工夫論的理論架構。其中,康氏主張氣性三品說,認為人類天生,有極少數者為「上智」和「下愚」,絕大部分者為「中人」。而康氏的工夫論,必須要在理論上說明人類氣性三種類別的工夫理論。再者,康氏「儒家工夫論系統」主張人類兼有「擴充內在善質」和「積習聖王教化」兩套工夫才能至善、成德。這套合會孟、荀的工夫論是對普遍提升人類道德的有效方法,足以解釋儒家何以能推動不同氣質者皆邁向至善、成德之途。在另一方面,康氏闡釋孔子是「生而知之」者之說,以解釋聖人與禮義、法度的來源。實則,康氏人性論系統所開出的光譜,即是三世文明遞進系統的理論來源。在他看來,在至聖孔子所遺留下的微言大義中,隱藏著三世文明遞進系統,正是要全面推動各種氣質的人類群體,至善以成德。

    據康氏的闡釋,孔子是制法之王,故足以開顯三世文明遞進系統。對此,筆者進一步指出康氏是以孔子為神明聖王,以作為孔子制法之王地位的理論依據。康氏一貫主張,人類內在的善質,生而體現為知覺,而知覺提升到最優良的狀態,叫作神明。故神明聖王和神人的稱謂並非為了神秘化孔子,而是要強調孔子是生而知之的智者。順此,康氏將孔門內部區分成四系學統。本章已析論康氏所重構的四系學統,以探討其義涵與不足。

    總而言之,本論文的撰作旨在釐清康氏經世儒學的思想導向,進而考察此一思路如何重建一種孔子觀、孔門弟子與整套儒學史觀。筆者主張,惟有在釐清其理論基礎的前提下,才能更有效的檢討康氏思想的缺失。
    ;In general, Kang Youwei’s works on Confucianism inclines towards applied governance. His core issue is: How did Confucianism tradition in China drove political reforms during the Guangxu period? To answer this question, Kang proposes that the Confucianist theory of human nature is the theoretical foundation of the origins of the driving forces for reformation.

    The focus of this paper is to unearth the threads of thought throughout Kang’s various works. The writer revisits Kang’s theory of human nature and practicality of moral effort in order to outline the main theme throughout his works on Confucianism. Kang’s interpretation of Mencius’ and Xunzi’s thoughts under this main theme proposes a unique idea of Qixing (physically endowed nature) which unifies both Mencius’ and Xunzi’s thoughts on the theory of human nature and theory of moral effort, which should not be overlooked.

    Hence, the writer sorts out Kang’s theoretical framework that unifies Mencius’ and Xunzi’s theory of human nature to reveal the theory of human nature and theory of moral effort in Confucius’ physically endowed nature. Kang proposes that there are three grades of physically endowed nature. Only a handful of people are born into the “superior” class and the “inferior” class. Most people fall into the “middle” class. Kang’s theory on moral effort must provide a theoretical explanation on the theory of moral effort that supports the above grading. Moreover, Kang’s “Confucianist Theory of Moral Effort System” proposes that humans have to both “expand the inner kindness” and “practice the teachings of sage rulers” in order to achieve supreme kindness and accomplish virtue. This theory of moral effort can effectively raise the people’s moral in general and can provide an explanation on why Confucianism can drive people of different nature on the path to pursue supreme kindness and accomplish virtue. On the other hand, Kang’s description of Confucius as a person with “innate knowledge” explains the origins of the sages, rites and laws. In fact, the spectrum of Kang’s theory of human nature system is also the origin theory in the Progressive System of the Three Civilization Ages. From Kang’s perspective, the system is hidden within the legacy of Confucius’ Weiyan Dayi (great meanings conveyed in subtle words) and is meant to comprehensively drive people with different grades of physically endowed nature to pursue supreme kindness and accomplish virtue.

    According to Kang, Confucius is the Ruler of Rules, which is why he can unveil the “Progressive System of the Three Civilization Ages”. On this, the writer further points out that Kang refers to Confucius as the Godly Bright Sage Ruler and he uses this as the theoretical basis for Confucius to become the Ruler of Rules. Kang had always believed that the inner kindness of humans is born in the form of intellectual perception and when it is pushed to its supreme form, it would achieve a status called “Shenming” (Godly Bright) Which is why giving the title of Godly Bright Sage Ruler and Godly Man is not meant to mystify Confucius but to stress that Confucius is a wise man who has innate knowledge. Based on this, Kang separates the Confucian School into four different intellectual traditions. This chapter will analyze Kang’s reconstruction of the four intellectual traditions and discuss its meaning and shortcomings.

    In conclusion, the objective of this paper is to sort out Kang’s Applied Governance tendency in his Confucianism thought, and further examine how this line of thought would reconstruct how we view Confucius, his disciples and the whole history of the Confucianism School. The writer propose that, sorting out the theoretical foundations may be the basis to examine the shortcomings of Kang’s thought effectively.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

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