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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/80272


    Title: 《維摩詰經》諸本對勘及研究──以〈法供養品〉及〈囑累品〉為中心
    Authors: 趙淑華;CHAO, SHU-HUA
    Contributors: 中國文學系
    Keywords: 層積之作;原始文本;系譜;拉赫曼方法;互文性;互文分析;套語;引文;甘珠爾系譜;日本古寫經;西藏西部寫本;于闐語文獻;stratified text;ur-sūtra;stemma;Lachmann method;intertextuality;intertextual analysis;formulas;stemma of bKa′ ′gyur;Khotanese literature
    Date: 2019-07-24
    Issue Date: 2019-09-03 12:27:51 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本文旨在針對漢譯《維摩詰經》〈法供養品〉及〈囑累品〉的經文,進行「資料整理」及「研究」,同時也兼及第一品「通序」的部分內容。其中「資料整理」部分是針對梵、藏、漢諸本進行版本斠讎、傳本對勘、梵藏本語詞釋義、語法解析和貼近原文的白話翻譯,必要時也作了相關深入研究及補充說明。至於「研究」則順著斠讎及對勘所引發的問題,亦即斠讎對勘結果所顯示的「版本源流關係」及「傳本出入狀況」為何,而進一步開展出如下的討論。
    首先,為了找出考察《維摩詰經》諸本變化的有效方法,本文回顧了前賢的研究。結果發現:百餘年來的佛典形成史研究,一直都是遵循著佛典是一層積之作的原則,進而試圖還原佛典原貌,推演層積過程。但學者已證明過去利用對勘諸本來找尋原始文本是行不通。相對地,「互文性」概念卻很符合佛教文本形成與發展的狀況。因此,筆者從L’intertextualité一書所談的三種分析互文的能力,推衍出分析互文的三個步驟,以此作為本文考察傳本變化的方法。
    接著,為抉擇出互文分析的合適對象,以便有效探究《維摩詰經》諸本的變化,本文也考察學者對經文改造及增廣的研究。結果發現:常被重複引用的套語,正是大乘經典中經常發生改造及增廣之處。誠如學者所言,套語的定型狀況會反映文本時代、地域、所屬部派,考察套語可了解文獻的成立狀況、傳播過程及所屬部派。因此,套語很適合作為互文分析的對象。
    找出方法及對象後,接著本文便著手說明《維摩詰經》各傳本的版本現況。其中不僅指出于闐語寫本年代是五、六世紀,也運用「版本對勘法」判定本文所用的兩個日本古寫經應是抄自《開寶藏》系的刊本。此外,也利用本文整理好的校勘資料,說明敦煌寫本及西藏西部寫本等本的書寫和拼字的特徵,以及翻譯和經文內容的狀況,然後歸納出藏譯本的特色。
    最後,藉由傳本間的異文,本文做出傳本系譜,因而得知《維摩詰經》諸本主要分兩大系:支謙及羅什譯本一系,其他諸本一系。再者,透過套句的互文分析,也得知此經編輯者相當熟悉聲聞經。文中日常對話的慣用語和已發展完成的法數套語,較不會再變化。相對地,堆疊同義或近義詞的詞組,以及由數個句子組成的套式,其「動態性」則特別明顯,最容易隨著流傳而繼續受到編輯,內容由簡變繁。但是,也因文本有相互模仿引用的「互文性」,從而促使流傳中的佛教文本不斷發生變化,但又不約而同地朝著法數的統一、句式的固定等等口傳文獻特點走去。
    ;This thesis is a recensional research of “The Offering of Dharma” and “Injunction to Spread this Sūtra” in the Chinese translation of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa, with part of “the general introduction”(通序)of Chapter One involved. There are two parts: “Data-processing” includes textual criticism, recensional comparison and glossing, parsing, translation of the parallel Sanskrit and Tibetan texts, with further survey when needed. And “research” analyzes recensional variations and constructs the stemma of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa, in order to understand the development of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa and the filiation of those recensions of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa. .
    To find out the useful ways to explore the development of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa, I reviewed the previous related studies and discover that the formation and development of the Buddhist texts and their studies have observed the rule of stratification. Yet scholars have failed to recognize the ur-sutra/ur-text by deconstructing the process of stratification. By contrast, “intertextuality” corresponds to the formation and development of the Buddhist texts. Hence, I deduce three steps of intertextual analysis from L’intertextualité and apply them to analyzing the variations in the recensions in this thesis.

    Then, I investigate the study of the alterations and interpolations in the Buddhist texts in order to select the proper object of my research into the development of the versions of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa. The study shows that in Mahāyānasūtras the oft-cited formulas, or fixed sets of words, were where alterations and interpolations were, and that the pattern of the formulas reveals the date, region, and school a text belongs to. Thus, this thesis focuses on formulas for an insight into the formation, distribution and affiliation of the versions of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa.
    After finding out the approach and the research object, I start out with analyzing the editions of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa. I indicate first that the Khontese manuscript was dated back to the 5th and 6th centuries, and then my textual comparison discloses that the two extant manuscripts in Japan were copies of the printed edition affiliated to the system of Kaibao Zang. In addition, the proofread materials enable me to discern the paleographic and orthographic characteristics of the Dunhuang and western Tibetan manuscripts and so on, illustrate their translations and contents, and identify the very features of the Tibetan versions.
    Last, this thesis also contributes to a stemma of recensions of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa by way of recensional comparison and contrast. The recensions can be divided into two groups: Zhi Qian’s and Kumārajīva’s translations are one group, and the rest are the other. Moreover, the intertextual analysis of formulas suggests that the authors or editors of Vimalakīrtinirdeśa must have been very familiar with Śrāvakasūtras. Unlike the daily expressions and the established Buddhist concepts, which rarely change, synonym-piled phrases and sentence formulas are very dynamic, susceptible to alterations and interpolation throughout distribution. They also undergoes “intertextuality.” It enable texts to imitate and cite one another, shaping the intertextuality of the Buddhist texts and producing more variations in the process of distribution, but the variations surprisingly fit into stock patterns of oral literature, such as consistent Buddhist concepts and fixed formulas.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

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