本論文提出一種新式的干涉儀「波長調制外差駐波干涉儀」。此新式干涉儀整合了光學干涉系統、波長調制技術、駐波干涉術，其應用於位移量測精度可達奈米等級。 本研究利用雷射二極體波長可調制的特性，搭配刻意刻設計的光程差，產生外差光源。外差光源搭配駐波干涉儀的優點為單束光路，再結合一片奈米球散射板，可將駐波干涉光場散射出來。透過本研究提出的相位演算法，可巧妙的擷取出相位正交的兩道訊號，經過解析相位即可換算出位移量。 我們設計了以單光束構建而成的波長調制外差駐波干涉儀，其相較於傳統商用干涉儀，可減少硬體架構空間，透過波長調制的方式調制出外差光源使量測系統達到高精度、高靈敏度以及抵抗外在干擾的效果，搭配上相位演算法，其量測效果媲美目前市面上昂貴的精密量測設備。 根據理論推倒與實驗結果顯示，本系統量測解析度可達2.5 nm，量測靈敏度為1.38 nm/°，量測速度極限可達3.3 μm/s。;In this study, a new type of optical interferometer is proposed to be” Wavelength modulation heterodyne standing wave interferometer.” The new interferometer integrates optical interference system, wavelength modulation technique, and standing wave interferometry. Since it applying on displacement measurement, its accuracy could reach to nanometer level. We utilize the characteristic of the laser diode-wavelength modulability and the special optical path deference designed to produce the heterodyne light source. By Combining the advantage of the standing wave interferometer- single beam path and mixing the nanosphere scattering plate, we scatter the standing wave interference light field. By means of the phase detecting algorithm proposed in this study, the two quadratic signals could be detected ingeniously. Also, we could obtain the displacement by analyzing the phase variation of the signals. Wavelength modulation heterodyne standing wave interferometer designed by us is constructed with the single beam path. Comparing with the traditional commercial interferometer, it can reduce the hardware architecture space. The heterodyne light source we used by wavelength modulation technique makes the measurement system achieve high precision, high sensitivity and resistance against external interference. With the phase algorithm, the measuring function is comparable to the expensive precision measuring equipment which are currently available on the market. According to the theoretical derivation and the experimental results, the measurement resolution is about 2.5 nm, the measurement sensitivity is 1.38 , and the limitation of measurement speed is about 3.3 m/s.