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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/80731


    Title: 黃老道家思想視域下的精神修養觀—— 以帛書《黃帝四經》為核心;Spiritual Cultivation Skill from Huang-Lao Daoist School’s Point of View—Focus on Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor Copied on Silk
    Authors: 周貞余;Chou, Chen-Yu
    Contributors: 哲學研究所
    Keywords: 黃帝四經;黃老道家;精神;修養;;;Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor;Huang-Lao Daoist School;spirit;cultivation;ding;tranquility
    Date: 2019-07-26
    Issue Date: 2019-09-03 15:02:32 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本論文以《黃帝四經》的定靜思想為視點,探討黃老道家的精神修養工夫,誠如余英時所言,中國古代思想家有一極為引人注目的現象,即是各派思想都同樣強調精神修養,並發展出一套「修身」方法以建立其關於「道」的獨特思想。在各家思想中,有一學派思想主張,近年來引起學界特別重視,尤其是1973年馬王堆漢墓出土大量的帛書,黃老道家思想之研究蔚為風氣。黃老道家思想主張治身即治國,也就是說,「能治身者,得以治其國」。本論文以兩條思想脈絡來呈現,一為縱觀黃老道家對於「道」之主張;二為橫切,以各家提出之「修身」法以契其「道」論,以此縱橫兩觀,逼顯出黃老道家的精神修養工夫。本論文分六章進行討論,其內容綱要簡述如下。第一章〈導論〉:說明研究動機、目的及研究方法與進行步驟,並概述歷年來相關議題之研究成果。第二章〈帛書《黃帝四經》之基本問題〉:首先對帛書《黃帝四經》之成書年代進行討論,《黃帝四經》目前被認定是黃老學派最早的著作,其成書年代各家說法不同,經學者考證,大致有三種主張,為戰國中期以前、戰國中期及戰國末期等說法,但不論為初期、中期、晚期,可以確定的是其成書年代當在戰國時期。另對於成書之可能地域進行考察,最後則對當時人文薈萃之稷下學宮做一整體介紹。
    第三章〈帛書《黃帝四經》之思想繼承〉:本章乃針對可能形構《黃帝四經》之精神修養觀的理論進行考察,發現在《黃帝四經》中處處可見《老子》的哲學思想,由其引用之次數,即可看出《黃帝四經》受《老子》思想影響之深遠。因此,本章以《老子》對治欲望的問題作為開場,提出人與生俱來之生理需求,因其執著造作,變質而為斲傷心靈,心靈成為自我之戰場。另外,在研究過程中,筆者發現《文子》對於《黃帝四經》有其深刻之影響。特別是關於「道」的論述,影響到《黃帝四經》;另者,《文子》將用以形容「道」之特質的虛無、平易、清靜、柔弱、純粹素樸等概念,轉化為聖人之修養工夫,此幾乎為黃老道家所吸收。第四章〈帛書《黃帝四經》「定」「靜」思想內涵〉:本章分別由定於一、定其位、定於心三個層面探討其「定」之思想,最後歸結於「安徐正靜,柔節先定」之「定」的工夫,並提出若能同時兼顧此三層面,方能達到真正的「定」。另一方面,從正靜、虛靜、中靜不流三方面切入,探討《黃帝四經》「靜」的思想。第五章〈帛書《黃帝四經》對傳世文獻之影響〉:本章分別探討《黃帝四經》對於《管子》四篇、《鶡冠子》,乃至《淮南子》之影響。黃老道家思想至《淮南子》時,幾乎建構出一套完整的思想體系。於個人上,強調其精神修養工夫,以與「道」合一;於政治上,冀求達到所謂的至人之治,即,君王之心與神處,形與性調,洞然無為而天下自和,澹然無欲而民自樸的理想境界。此一理想境界,即是黃老道家的精神修養工夫,所欲建構的「治身即治國」的理想目標,不僅修身,更能治國。亦即:精神修養觀,即是其治國理論。最後於第六章做一總結。
    ;The thesis focused on the Dingjing thought in Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor to probe into the spiritual cultivation skill of Huang-Lao Daoist School. It is exactly as Ying-Shih Yu once said, ancient Chinese philosophers had an extremely noticeable phenomenon: the thoughts of different schools emphasized spiritual cultivation, and they developed an approach to “cultivating one′s moral character” to build their distinctive thoughts about “Dao.” Among the thoughts of all schools, one was specially valued by the academic circles for the past few years, especially a great number of ancient books copied on silk unearthed from Mawangdui Tomb in 1973, making research into the thought of Huang-Lao Daoist School become popular. The thought of Huang-Lao Daoist School contended that cultivating one′s moral character was the same as administering a country. In other words, one who could cultivate his moral character was able to administer his country. The thesis is presented with two contexts of thought: the first one is to make a general observation of Huang-Lao Daoist School′s viewpoint for “Dao;” the second one is to crosscut to match the methods of “cultivating one′s moral character” proposed by each school with their argumentation on “Dao.” By viewing this from two different angles, the spiritual cultivation skill of Huang-Lao Daoist School is thus presented. The thesis has been divided into six chapters, and the content and outlines are as follows. In Chapter One, “Introduction” illustrates the research motivation, objectives, methods and steps and outlines the research results of related issues over the years. In Chapter Two, “Fundamental Questions of Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor Copied on Silk” first discusses the publication of Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor which is currently regarded as the earliest publication of the Huang-Lao School, but each sect held different views about the era of its publication. Upon textual research by scholars, there were roughly three stands: prior to mid Warring States Period, mid Warring States Period and at the end of Warring States Period. However, whether the book was published during the early, middle or late Warring States Period, it is certain that the book was published during the Warring States Period. Additionally, the author investigated the possible locations of the publication and made an integral introduction to Jixia Academy where numerous talents gathered at that time.
    In Chapter Three, “Thought Inheritance of Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor Copied on Silk” probes into the theory that could possibly construct the perspective on spiritual cultivation of Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor. It found that the philosophical thought of Laozi could be seen everywhere in the book. Additionally, the number of quotes from Laozi showed that Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor was profoundly influenced by the thought of Laozi. Therefore, the chapter begins with the issue of managing desires in Laozi and proposes innate physiological needs. However, Laozi persisted in creation which deteriorated to harm the spirit that later turned into a battlefield of the self. Additionally, in the process of the research, the author found that Wenzi had a significant influence on Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor. Wenzi held that “Dao” could not be seen and heard. It was silent and intangible, and it was “ultimately godly.” The view influenced Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor which clearly defined “Dao is where gods originate from.” Wenzi clearly interpreted “Dao” and transformed features describing “Dao” such as void, easy, quiet, delicate, pure, simple and other concepts into the cultivation skill of saints, which was almost absorbed by Huang-Lao Daoist School. In Chapter Four, “Meanings of “Ding” and “Tranquility” in Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor Copied on Silk” probes into the thought of “Ding” from the three levels of Ding in unison, Ding in a position and Ding at heart. Last but not the least, the chapter concludes that the “Ding” skill as “being composed and with a tranquil temperament; being tender and moderate with a well-thought-out plan.” Additionally, the author proposes that if one could take the three levels into consideration at the same time, one would be able to reach the genuine “Ding.” On the other hand, the author probes into the thought of “tranquility” in Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor from the three aspects of sincere tranquility, elusive tranquility and tranquility at heart without being irritable. In Chapter Five, “Influence of Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor Copied on Silk on Documents being handed down for Generations” discusses the influence of Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor on the four chapters of Guanzi, Heguanzi and Huainanzi respectively. When the thought of Huang-Lao Daoist School passed down to Huainanzi, a complete ideology was almost constructed. Individually speaking, the thought emphasized the skill of spiritual cultivation and united with “Dao.” Politically speaking, the thought hoped to reach the so-called governance of a saint. In other words, it is an ideal state where the heart of a sovereign king is like that of a god, with his form adjusting to nature. Although the king lets things take their own course, the world is harmonious, and although there is no desire, people are humble. This ideal state is the skill of spiritual cultivation of Huang-Lao Daoist School, and it is an ideal goal of “cultivating one’s moral character as administering a country” that the Daoist School intended to establish—one not only cultivated his moral character, but also administered his country. That is to say, the perspective on spiritual cultivation was their theory of administering a country. Last but not the least, Chapter Six is the conclusion of the thesis.
    Appears in Collections:[哲學研究所] 博碩士論文

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