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    題名: 探勘線上學習模式與探討學習模式對學習成效的影響;Mining Learning Pattern in Online Course and Exploring the Influence of Learning Pattern on Learning Performance
    作者: 陳思允;Chen, Ssu-Yun
    貢獻者: 資訊工程學系在職專班
    關鍵詞: 開放線上課程;磨課師;序列模式探勘;學習模式;學習策略;學習成效;MOOC;MOOCs;Sequential Pattern Mining;Learning pattern;Learning strategies;Learning performance
    日期: 2019-07-23
    上傳時間: 2019-09-03 15:36:48 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 隨著科技進程與網際網路的廣泛運用,線上開放教育資源也同時逐漸興起。大規模開放線上課程(MOOC,Massive Open Online Course)為近期最新的遠端教育指標,特色為開放共用(open access)及可擴張性(scalability)。我國教育部於2014年初發展磨課師(MOOCs)課程推動計畫,透過Coursera、Udacity、Open edX提供的開放源碼,各大專院校也逐漸發展出自己的開放線上課程,目的為打造學生於學習上不受限於時間、空間及地點的學習環境,也希望基於學生廣泛地參與能夠透過這些學習數據能為提供更多學生的學習狀況並適時地予以協助。
    本研究旨在學生於大規模開放線上課程參與課程內容所提供線上課程功能,包括:閱讀線上電子書內容、觀看線上課程影片、線上課程測驗。透過學生連續操作的行為所產生之記錄(log),經資料蒐集、處理、定義後,將其行為簡化為編碼(encode)。例如使用者一連串的學習活動(learning activity)資訊,其內容包括:使用者名稱、Session、操作狀態及發生時間…等。
    透過一連串的分析方法,可否根據學生在線上學習平台的操作,將學習活動序列化(sequential),再透過不同的序列模式探勘方法(Sequential Pattern Mining)找出學生共有的學習子序列(learning sub-sequences)?探勘出學生學習子序列後,是否能再經由這些學習子序列找出與學習成效(learning performance)相關性及具有代表性的學習模式(learning pattern)?藉由探索性因素分析(Exploratory Factor Analysis, EFA)的主要成份分析(Principal Component Analysis, PCA)找出學習模式的主要成分為哪些?隨後使用多重因素分析(Multiple Factor Analysis, MFA)觀察不同學習成效的學生其學習成就上的差異為何?
    經過研究結果證實,所採用的序列模式探勘方法,確實能夠說明學生的共同學習行為對學習成效具正、負面的影響。並根據其該課程學生在線上課程學習序列模式(Types of learning sequences),定義出四個主要學習策略(Learning strategies)。

    然而,這些結果在將來是否可透過學生在學習線上課程的過程裡,觀察學生的學習模式如果趨向於某種不良的學習策略時,透過線上課程系統的學習輔助設計,給予學生在學習上的建議,已提升學生的學習成效,則是未來可繼續深入探討的方向。

    關鍵字:MOOCs(Massive Open Online Courses)、行為序列(activity sequence)、主成份分析(Principal Component Analysis)、探索性因素分析(Exploratory Factor Analysis)、多重因素分析(Multiple Factor Analysis, MFA)
    ;With the arising of technology and the extensive utilization of Internet, online open education resources are also emerging. Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is the latest remote education indicator recently. The features of MOOC are open access and its scalability. In early 2014, the Ministry of Education of Taiwan developed the MOOCs program. By the open source provided by Coursera, Udacity, and Open edX, various colleges and universities developed their own open online courses, aiming at creating a learning environment for students free from the restriction on the time, space and location. In addition, based on the learning data from the extensive participation of the students, it is intended to provide more assistance to the students according to the learning situation.
    This study is directed to the students′ participation of the online course functions provided by the large scale MOOC courses, including reading online e-book content, watching online course videos, and the online course tests. Through the records (logs) generated by the students′ continuous operation, after the data is collected, processed, and defined, the behavior is simplified into an encoding. For example, the information of a series learning activities by a user includes: user name, Session, operation status, time of occurrence, etc.
    Through a series of analysis methods, is it possible to make the learning activities sequential and then to find a common learning sub-sequences between the students according to different sequential patter mining methods (such as, Sequential Patter Mining, etc.)? After mining the students learning sub-sequences, is it possible to find the correlation between the learning performance and the typical learning pattern based on the learning sub-sequences? What are the main components of the learning pattern found by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)? Afterward, what are the learning performance differences by observing the student groups under different performances using the Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA)?
    According to the result of the present research, the adopted Sequence Pattern Detections method shows that the students′ common learning behavior has a positive/negative effects on learning performances. According to the types of learning sequences of the students on the online courses, four major learning strategies are defined.
    For future study, further research may be conducted on how the results of the present solution may aid to provide suggestions to the students by the auxiliary learning system of the online course system in order to improve the learning performance when it is observed that the learning pattern of the students tends to a more improper learning strategy during the online course learning.

    Keywords: MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses), activity sequence, Principal Component Analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Multiple Factor Analysis
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