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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/81744


    Title: 明人判牘中的婦女姦事研究;A Study on Women Adulteries in Judicial Documents in the Ming Dynasty
    Authors: 楊惠君;YANG, HUEI -JYUN
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 明代判牘;法司判決;犯姦律令;明代讞詞;婦女姦事;Judicial Collections of the Ming Dynasty;Judicial Judgment;Law for Sexual Offense;Ming Dynasty Verdicts;Women Ravishment
    Date: 2019-07-17
    Issue Date: 2019-09-03 16:58:18 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 摘要
    辭藻豐盈華美的判牘,主題是嚴肅至重的司法案件,然多收入於官員的文集之中,自有其表達心志或高置教化的潛在意涵。即使是文集內的傳記或者祭文,文人概以性別分卷編目,大抵官位高者先、低者或無官銜者後;男性先、女性後,同性之間才以輩分序之。而風憲官們卻不以性別區分各項案件,臚列於判牘中的女性犯者,不規則且活潑地顯現其身影,判牘中的經歷,代表她們敏捷活動的軌跡,以及戮力致生的歷史。揀擇其中有關姦事的案例,追索文官的思考脈絡與界定筆法,同理婦女的利益考量與求存模式,更凸顯明朝中期之後,社會、經濟與思想變動之「鉅」與「遽」。藉由對明人判牘的研究,隱約析縷出:統治者對於人民及底層社會的呼應或遷就,進而在制度與手段上產生連動更易和彈性處置,即非顯明易辨、一朝一夕,實潛流微伏,思潮萌動。
    理與情之爭,未必天平兩端,極者亦漸趨向中道理性。中央政府與律法當然欲高標、欲定正;惟地方官員與庶民卻為時勢所迫、為生存所需,常常妥協於環境和現實。婦女自然隸屬於社會之一環,其情思與行動皆展露判牘之內,幾經文官彩筆潤飾刪修,不掩其欲望和勇氣。主動或被迫抉擇,積極或消極抵抗、配合,為利或為情逞凶、行姦,她們不僅擁有情欲貪念,亦擁有智慧與決斷能力。無懼他人目光和價值判斷,即使常因姦情被撞破而難堪自經;有時不願身陷禮教桎梏和經濟窘境,毅然追尋利己環境、悅己之人,偶因選擇錯誤而身罹大辟,婦女們依然無畏地邁向未知的境地。禮節與旌揚無法維持下層社會的生活,抑或以上兩者止為統治階層的理想,欲加之於庶眾的榮耀,距離無以為生的民人太過遙遠空泛。務實地金錢與情感後盾方為庶民生活的目標,端賴歷朝政府設計更有效的回饋制度,建立更為體察民瘼的支持系統,理性導引庶民知禮守法。
    ;Abstract
    The judicial collections with abundant and gorgeous language are mostly in the topics of serious and critical judicial cases. However, they are usually included in the officials’ collected works to implicate the underlying meaning of mind expression or prisoner education and conversion. Even for the biographies or funeral orations in the collection, scholars usually classify them in sequence of various attributes; generally speaking, those who are with higher position will be listed first before those who are with lower position or without position. Men will be placed before women, and seniority will only be considered between the same genders. On the contrary, officials who supervise law execution do not classify various cases in such attributes. The female offenders listed in the judicial collection are shown irregularly and lively. Their experiences in the judicial collection represent their trails of nimble movement as well as the history of striving for survival. Picking up of the cases related to ravishment, exploring the context and judgment description from civil officials, and empathizing women’s interests consideration and survival mode highlight the “huge” and “fast” changes in the society, economy, and ideas after Mid Ming Dynasty. The research on the judicial collection in Ming Dynasty reveals the rulers’ response or compromises towards people and lower level of society as well as further generates linking and more flexible treatment in the aspects of system and means. It is not outstanding and easy to identify, nor does it happen in a short period of time; instead, it is the enlightenment of ideological trend in a long and slow current.
    The argument between reason and sentiment is not necessarily at the opposite side of the balance; the extreme is also moving towards the middle of the reasoning. The central government and the law definitely prefer high standard and fixed regulation for right behavior, but the local officials and common people often have to compromise with the circumstance and the reality due to the current situation and their own survival. Women are part of society, and their ideas and actions are shown in the judicial collection; their desire and courage are never covered up after being refined, deleted, and modified by the civil officials. Whether they are proactive or forced to make the choice, actively or passively resist and cooperate, or act violently and commit adultery for seeking profits or love, they, after all, own not only lust and covetous thoughts but also wisdom and decision-making capability. They are not afraid of other people’s attention and value judgment even though they often embarrassed themselves due to the disclosure of adultery. Sometimes, they are determined to pursue the circumstance that benefits them or people that please them without worrying ethical fetters and handcuffs and economic difficulty. Occasionally, they make wrong choices and put themselves in the death sentence but women still move towards the unknown situation without fear. Manners and praises cannot maintain the life demand in the lower level of the society; the aforementioned are only the ideal from the ruling class. The glory that is going to be put on the general people is far away and unrealistic from the people who live on nothing. The life goal of the common people is the practical money and affection support. It will be replied on governments to design more effective feedback system and establish a supporting system that is able to observe people’s suffering before the common people can be guided rationally for being well-mannered and compliance with the law.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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