研究結果顯示，高溫爐燒製之環保水泥熟料，在抗壓強度方面，對照組各齡期之強度，分別為75.48 kgf/cm2、134.91 kgf/cm2及216.42 kgf/cm2；然而，以混燒灰渣燒製環保水泥之機械強度均不高，經養護後，僅以KYP BA(廣O造紙之混燒底渣)組之抗壓強度，可優於對照組，分別達101.16 kgf/cm2、130.65 kgf/cm2及230.00 kgf/cm2。
為進一步評估旋轉窯系統對燒製環保水泥之影響，試驗結果顯示，旋轉窯燒製之環保水泥熟料，游離氧化鈣含量，由平均1.5%降至平均1.0%；凝結時間平均介於150至250分鐘，相較於高溫爐燒製之熟料而言，凝結時間縮短約50分鐘。抗壓強度方面，對照組各齡期強度分別達到120.00kgf/cm2、191.76kgf/cm2及273.33kgf/cm2，相較於高溫爐熟料亦增加約50%。相較之前KYP BA組之抗壓強度，平均為168.32kgf/cm2、195.03kgf/cm2及263.87kgf/cm2，已可達到CNS 61規範標準。顯示旋轉窯有較佳煅燒效果，可生成水泥熟料之主要礦物組成。
;This research investigates on the feasibility of replacing the cement raw materials with co-fired biomass ash by using laboratory scale fixed-bed furnace and rotary kiln system. The physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the cement clinker manufactured by different co-fired ash addition were controlled the cement modulus, heating rate, sintered temperature, and sintered time.
The fixed-bed experimental results showed that the compressive strength of cement clinker manufactured by cement raw materials were 75.48 kgf/cm2 (3 days), 134.91 kgf/cm2 (7 days), and 216.42 kgf/cm2 (28 days). However, compressive strengths of eco-cement produced by different co-fired ash addition were lower than that of the cement clinker. Only one eco-cement (produced by KYP BA) compressive strengths were 101.16 kgf/cm2 (3 days), 130.65 kgf/cm2 (7 days), and 230.00 kgf/cm2 (28 days), respectively, higher than that of cement clinker.
To further assess the effect of eco-cement sintered by rotary kiln system, the results indicated that the f-CaO content of the eco-cement clinker was decreased from 1.5% to 1.0% resulted in applying the rotary kiln system. For the setting time, the initial and final setting time of the eco-cement sintered by rotary kiln system were approximately ranged from 150 minutes to 250 minutes. Comparing with fixed-bed furnace, it could reduce 50 minutes setting time. In the case of the compressive strength of cement clinker produced by rotary kiln system, the compressive strengths were 120.00 kgf/cm2 (3 days), 191.76 kgf/cm2 (7 days), and 273.33 kgf/cm2 (28 days), respectively. However, the compressive strengths of eco-cement sintered by KYP BA were in compliant with CNS 61 standard criteria which there were 168.32 kgf/cm2 (3 days), 195.03 kgf/cm2 (7 days), and 263.87 kgf/cm2 (28 days). It implied that the main mineral composition of the cement clinker was formed by rotary kiln system.
According to the hydration results of clinkers, the main hydration products C-H and C-S-H gel could be observed at the early curing stage. The C-H and C-S-H gel were significantly increased with the curing age increasing. Based on the XRD, FTIR, and SEM analysis results, it can find out the above experimental results were consistent with the trends in compressive strength increasing. Overall, the relevant results of this research has proved the feasibility of eco-cement manufactured from co-fired biomass ash and cement raw materials, but also can provide useful information for the development of related technologies and policy formulation in eco-cement manufacturing.