近年來由於氣候變遷及人口快速上升，導致乾淨且可利用的水資源越來越稀少，因此污水回收再利用的需求及發展漸漸受到重視，未來也希望運用在用水量較多的農業灌溉，甚至是飲用水，但前提是再利用的水質需受到嚴格控管，這包括過往較常被忽略的生物性污染物，特別是抗生素抗性基因(antibiotic resistance genes, ARGs)與抗生素抗性菌(antibiotic resistance bacteria, ARB)。有鑒於污水處理廠已被認定為是原核生物獲取與交換抗性基因的潛在熱區，以及為了避免再生水中的抗生素抗藥性成為公共安全衛生和環境污染問題，調查ARB與ARGs於污水處理單元的流佈，以期瞭解並掌握ARB與ARGs的動態變化、甚至預測其在污水處理程序過程的表現即顯得具時效性與重要性。此外，近年來隨著抗生素的濫用與不當使用，已使得環境和臨床案例中感染具多重抗藥性的病原菌之案例逐年升高，由於大部分的致病菌已知多是透過環境中(特別是農業系統)的一般微生物而獲得抗性基因，因此環境中抗生素抗藥性的加速發展所引發的公共衛生問題逐漸令人憂心。值得注意的是，重金屬已被視為極可能是維持ARGs在環境流佈存續的關鍵因子之一，但此種非傳統抗生素抗性發展的途徑(即透過金屬的共選擇機制而誘發抗生素抗性)截至目前為止仍未得到廣泛的研究。有鑒於此，本研究將針對北台灣不同都市污水廠調查特定ARGs與ARB在廠內各處理單元程序的濃度變化，以了解各單元操作與ARGs及ARB流佈的關聯性，也將針對桃園流經中壢工業區的埔心溪流域周圍受重金屬(主要為銅)污染且具有濃度梯度的農地進行採樣，透過相同的ARGs定量分析，以及土壤重金屬總量與序列萃取分析，調查重金屬污染是否能促進抗生素抗藥性的發展，並了解重金屬的生物有效性與共選擇抗藥性兩者間的關聯性。本研究所得的結果除了可作為評估台灣工程系統(污水廠)與自然系統(農地) ARGs及ARB環境傳播潛勢的第一步外，也盼能有助於更準確地預測與管理ARGs和ARB的環境誘發、持續等相關的風險問題。 ;Due to climate change and population explosion, a shortage of clean and safe water resources is becoming an increasingly serious problem worldwide. Reuse of treated domestic wastewater could be one of the solutions. Ultimately, it is aimed to use recycled wastewater in agricultural irrigation and even in drinking water. To meet this goal, the water quality of recycled wastewater has to be demanded absolutely safe at every level, both chemically and biologically. Given that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been considered hot spots for the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), investigating the dynamics of ARB and ARG levels during the wastewater treatment process and their association with other generic water quality parameters will be one step closer to the goal of wastewater reuse. In addition, cases of infection with multi-drug resistant pathogens in environmental and clinical settings have increased drastically in recent years, which presumably is attributed to the abuse and improper use of antibiotics. Given that most of the pathogens are known to acquire resistance genes from environmental microbes, the concern of rapid development and accumulation of the antibiotic resistome in the environment especially the agricultural ecosystem has raised. Notably, heavy metals are considered the critical factors that highly likely promote the maintenance of environmental ARGs. Yet, this non-traditional route of antibiotic resistance development (i.e., heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance) has not been extensively studied. As a result, in this study we will explore the emergence and distribution profiles of ARGs in units of different WWTPs, as well as in rice paddies irrigated with water from a creek flowing through the Jhongli Industrial Park and thus have been contaminated with varying levels of heavy metals. Both culture-dependent and –independent methods will be used to quantify levels of ARGs (by qPCR) and ARB (by traditional cultivation). Statistical analysis will be performed to probe the correlations of antibiotic resistance with wastewater quality and operation, as well as bioavailability of heavy metals in soil matrix. Results of this study can potentially provide insights into fate and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in both engineered and natural systems in Taiwan.