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    题名: 墮胎倫理道德之探討
    作者: 陳靜芳;Chen, Ching-Fang
    贡献者: 哲學研究所在職專班
    关键词: 保守主義;自由主義;折衷主義;母胎關係;儒家;墮胎;優生保健法;conservatism;liberalism;eclecticism;mother-fetus relation;Confucianism;abortion;Act of Eugenic Reproduction
    日期: 2021-01-26
    上传时间: 2021-03-18 17:10:33 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 墮胎是長久以來的問題,因為它牽涉到胎兒的生命,及懷孕婦女所遭遇困境的問題,蘊藏極大的爭議。因為墮胎不僅涉及道德的問題,對於有些西方國家也是政治與法律的議題。對於支持墮胎與反對墮胎兩大的陣營--支持生命權(Pro-life)的保守主義者及支持選擇權(Pro-choice)的自由主義者至今仍激辯不休。
    現實生活中有時確實有必須墮胎的需求,如果完全禁止,反而危害孕婦的健康,威脅她們的生命安全。比如,有生理上不可避免必須要墮胎的問題,如:子宮外孕、胎兒嚴重畸形等。或是基於倫理的考量,如:未成年懷孕的女性及因強暴而懷孕的婦女等。自由主義者尊重女性的身體自主權,因而支持選擇權和墮胎,但也不允許太隨意的墮胎。
    本文藉由探討西方三大主流對於墮胎的觀點,引進西茂爾非一非二之母胎關係,闡述母親與胎兒之間並非獨立、互相爭權的個體,母胎之間有不可分割的親密關係。與西方倫理觀點相較之下,儒家的倫理思想較能符應台灣社會倫理的觀點。因此,進一步探討儒家的倫理思想,以儒家的道德觀分析墮胎的道德問題。最後,檢討台灣墮胎的情況,及分析台灣優生保健法之法律與倫理問題並提出修法建議。
    ;Abortion is a long time problem in human history, because it involves the life of a fetus and the difficult situation and decisions of the pregnant woman, hence, it encloses a great controversy. For abortion is not only a moral problem, it is also a political and legal problems in some western countries. It is a never ending hot debate between the two camps of pro-life of the conservative and pro-choice the liberals.
    In real life there is certainly needs for abortion, and if totally forbidden, it may hurt the pregnant woman and threaten their lives. For instance, there are definitely physiological conditions, such as extra uterine pregnancy, serious deformed fetus that need abortion. There are ethical requirements that need be considered such as under-age pregnancy, or pregnant because of sexual assaulting. Liberals respect the right of body and support choice of the pregnant and hence abortion, but not arbitrary abortion. My thesis gives a fair analysis of the three mainstream philosophies of abortion and with the not-one and not-two relationship point of view of Seymour, I try to explicate the intimate relation of the mother-fetus that they are not totally independent and not opposing disputants of rights. In contrast, Confucianism is better fitting with the ethical view of Taiwan society. With the reasonable Confucian perspective, I argue that the ethical issues of abortion need be considered as a problem of ethical relation between the mother and fetus and supports reasonable abortion with the mother taking the role of a responsible moral agent in her decision. Lastly, my thesis gives some critical comments of the problems of abortion in Taiwan and the Act of Eugenic Reproduction, and give some suggestions on its amendment.
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