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|行動科技對經驗學習之支援性;Affordances of mobile technologies for experiential learning
|行動學習;經驗學習;行動科技;個人數位助理;支援性;學習護照;活動理論;experiential learning;mobile technology;PDA;affordance;learning passport;activity theory;mobile learning
|2009-09-22 11:32:36 (UTC+8)
|經驗學習是透過經驗的轉移以創造知識的過程，該理論已被應用在許多領域。然而，許多學者認為經驗學習缺乏機制以引導學生在真實的學習環境中進行學習，因此本研究引進學習護照及行動科技兩種機制以促進經驗學習。 首先，本研究提出網頁式的學習護照模式，並依據該模式開發三個學習護照系統，以進行學習護照對學習支援性的初步評估。第一個系統是資訊學習護照系統，它是以電腦知識及技能為學習內容，在實驗的一年半之間共有220所中小學及108,356位學生使用該系統。第二個是學習護照編輯系統，它保留了資訊學習護照的架構，將學科內容擴充到各個科目，系統中提供編輯介面，老師可以依據教學需求自行編輯或共享教材及護照內容。第三個是行動學習護照系統，該系統將學習護照編輯系統的使用設備從個人電腦擴展到個人數位助理(PDA)等行動設備上，行動學習護照系統可以提供學生手持PDA至戶外進行田野學習。從這三個系統的初步研究中顯示學習護照可以提高學生的學習動機及學習成效，同時也可幫助師生更清楚地瞭解學生自己及其他同學的學習狀況。 其次，為檢驗行動科技支援經驗學習的可能性，本研究根據Kolb的經驗學習理論及之前提出的網頁式學習護照的架構設計了六個步驟的學習流程，以及行動學習支援系統，該學習流程利用行動科技的輔助，引導學生手持PDA在學校植物園中進行經驗學習。最後，針對學習流程及行動科技進行實驗，計有兩個班級的小學五年級學生參與，一個班級的學生使用PDA在學校的植物園進行學習，另一個班級則採用傳統紙筆的方式。 實驗結果的分析包含兩個階段，為解釋行動科技對經驗學習的輔助程度，在第一階段中比較兩個班級學生獲得知識的差異性。由前、後測及學生的成果報告中顯示使用PDA的學生比沒有使用的學到也創造了更多的知識，證明了行動科技可以輔助學生在經驗學習的過程中，獲得更多的知識。然而，由問卷中顯示PDA所附的照相及錄音等功能，並無法將其所帶來的高度學習興致持續到之後的學習流程上。第二階段採用活動理論分析規則、社群及分工等各項因素如何影響行動科技對經驗學習的支援性，分析中發現由於學習者使用或教學者所安排的學習方法及學習工具本身會因為不當的配對而侷限了其對學習的支援，因此在使用科技時微妙的人性因素也應該被考慮進來。最後，本研究也提出三項工作做為未來研究的參考。 Experiential learning is the process of creating knowledge through the transformation of experience and has been adopted in an increasing number of areas. However, experiential learning is generally regarded as lacking a mechanism to focus student awareness in a learning context. The study aims to provide mechanisms of web-based learning passport and mobile technologies to facilitate experiential learning. At the beginning, the study conducted a preliminarily study on three learning passport systems grounded a proposed framework on a web-based learning passport. The learning subject of Information Learning Passport System (ILPS) is computer knowledge and skills. A total of 220 schools and 108,356 students used the system within one and half years. Learning Passport Authoring System (LPAS) applied the structure of ILPS and extended learning subjects. LPAS provided authoring interface for teachers to design learning content according to their instructional requirement. Mobile learning passport system (MLPS) extended usage equipments of ILPS from PC to mobile devices such as a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). MLPS provided students to conduct field-trip learning with PDA. From the preliminary evaluations of these three systems, the framework is appeared to be able to arouse student learning motivation, increase student learning achievement, and be helpful for clarifying student learning status and instructions for teachers. Then, to investigates the possibilities of mobile technological supports for experiential learning, a mobile technology supported system and a six-stage learning flow based on Kolb’s experiential learning theory and the proposed framework of learning passport were designed to facilitate students. The learning flow for experiential learning was designed in a school garden that guides students using facilities of PDAs. Last, an experiment was conducted to compare the knowledge creation of two classes of fifth-grade students with PDAs and those without PDAs on experiential learning. There was two-step analysis: Firstly, the study compared the knowledge gain of these two classes, in order to explain the extent to which mobile technology benefited experiential learning. The pre- and post-test and the final report showed that the class with PDAs gained more knowledge as well as created more knowledge than that of the without PDAs class. However, the questionnaire revealed that PDAs and their embedded functions such as photo-taking and sound-recording did not sustain engagement of this class in the following stage. Secondly, the study used activity theory as a lens to analyze further how other components, such as rules, community, and division of labor affect the affordances of mobile technology. The analysis further discovered that underlying tensions provided rich insights into system dynamics and that technological affordances could be limited by a mismatch between the tools as such, and the way in which they were used by learners or were arranged by the instructor. Therefore, the subtle human factors present in the use of technologies should be carefully considered. Moreover, there were three things were indicated to be considered as future works.
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