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|模擬實務社群之作業支援系統;Homework Support Systems in Simulated Community of Practices for Situated Learning
|作業;實務社群;情境學習;近側發展區;Zone of Proximal Development;Situated Learning;Community of Practice;Homework
|2009-09-22 11:38:23 (UTC+8)
|作業是一個很重要的學習活動，學生能在作業的過程中練習老師上課教的技術及知識，老師也能利用作業的成果，來評量學生的學習表現。然而一般的作業活動有以下的問題，首先每位學生得到相同的作業題目，這些題目並沒有考量到學生的差異性，導致有些學生無法由作業中學習，第二，這些作業或工作主要是設計讓學生可獨立完成，而學生也有困難與同學在放學後互動，所以學生在做作業的過程中互助及合作是較少的，第三，學生在完成作業的過程中建構了許多有用的知識，但是這些知識卻沒有有效的被分享。 本研究發展了三個系統來解決這些問題，包括一個作業支援系統，Coursework Journal系統及ProgrammingWiki系統，作業支援系統的設計概念是依據近測發展區，他能分析學生的網路作品集以提供適性化的作業題目及學習支援來幫助學生在他們的近測發展區中學習，當學生做作業是在他們的近測發展區時，他們所用到的知識及技能會在他們完成作業後發展。Coursework Journal系統及ProgrammingWiki系統是依據一個模擬實務社群的方法來建構，這個方法的設計原則是依據情境學習理論中認為的學習是發生在實務社群，學習是一個新手變成老手的軌跡，他不僅模擬實務社群的角色及工作，也模擬參與者由邊際參與到核心參與的過程。在這些被模擬的社群中，學生的角色能依據他們的學習狀態被改變，由角色工作的訓練學生能發展不只是知識也包括社群的技能。兩個線上學習社群依據這個方法被發展，一個稱為Coursework Journal，他模擬了期刊投稿社群，是被建構去促進作業活動的知識分享，另一個稱為ProgrammmingWiki，他模擬了軟體開發社群，是被建構去促進正面的社會互賴。 評量結果顯示學生由這個線上作業支援系統的支援有較多的機會進入他們的近側發展區；在Coursework Journal中主動分享知識的學生及分享的知識漸漸變多；而在ProgrammingWiki學生也認為正面的社會互賴也增加了。這些結果指出這些系統及方法能夠改善作業活動，更進一步，一些存在在此系統及方法的限制被提出，此外由於此模擬實務社群的方法是非常新穎，所以這個方法對學習的影響也被討論。 Students can practice skills and construct knowledge by carrying out homework. However, every student is assigned the same problem in general hands-on homework activities, with no consideration for learners’ diversity. Hence, some students do not take the task seriously when producing their homework. In addition, the kind of activity is structured for individual learning, collaboration between students is less. Furthermore, what one has learned—that is, the knowledge constructed by learners—cannot be shared efficiently during conventional homework activity. This study designed and developed three systems to solve the problems in the homework activity: a homework support system, a Coursework Journal system, and a ProgrammingWiki system. The homework support system was designed based on the concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). It can provide adaptive homework exercises and assistance by analyzing Web Portfolios to support learning within students’ ZPD. The Coursework Journal and ProgrammingWiki were designed by a methodology that simulates a real-world Community of Practice (CoP). The principles of the methodology is based on situated learning that learning is a trajectory in which a newcomer moves from Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP) to central participation in a CoP. This methodology not only simulates the role structure and tasks of a CoP but also the participation process. In the simulated communities, students’ roles are changed based on their learning status. Therefore they are given opportunity to develop not only programming knowledge but also community skills by playing different roles. Two online learning communities were constructed based on the methodology. One is called Coursework Journal; it simulated the real world journal publishing community for promoting knowledge sharing in the homework activity. The other is called ProgrammingWiki, it simulated the software development community for promoting positive social interdependence. The results of evaluations show that students with the support of the homework support system in a homework activity have higher likelihood of doing their homework within their ZPD than without the support of the homework support system; the quantity of knowledge sharing and the number of the students who actively share knowledge were increased in the Coursework Journal; and the students also highly agreed that the ProgrammingWiki can promote positive social interdependence. The results indicate that the proposed system can improve homework activity. Furthermore, some limitations existing in the system and methodology are proposed. In addition, the methodology is innovative, thus the effects of the methodology also are discussed.
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