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    题名: 以透水性鋪面導入韌性城市- 降低熱島效應與低衝擊開發之效益分析;Introducing Resilient City with Permeable Pavement- Benefit Analysis of Reducing the Heat Island Effect and Low-Impact Development
    作者: 李岳壇;Li, Yue-Tan
    贡献者: 土木工程學系
    关键词: 透水鋪面;透水鋪面管理平台;熱島效應;低衝擊開發;全生命週期
    日期: 2024-01-31
    上传时间: 2024-03-05 16:23:35 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 極端氣候對於全球影響逐漸加劇,因此每年夏季高溫均不斷創高,而單日降雨量也逐年升高,也導致旱災及水災事件頻傳,而導致極端氣候的主因即為都市發展,在都市發展下有開發更多道路之必要性,因此道路工程之開發如何降低對環境之衝擊為一大課題,因此本研究欲探討透水鋪面應用於道路工程之成效,希冀利用透水鋪面達到韌性城市之效益。本研究於桃園市蘆竹區大華北街一般鋪面及透水鋪面埋設溫度計、地溫計以及水位計等監測儀器,建置後端透水鋪面管理平台後,可即時將現場監測數據回傳並進行分析,主要探討透水鋪面相較於一般鋪面之降溫成效及降雨後洪峰削減效應。
    本研究取 109 年全年透水鋪面及一般鋪面之升降溫趨勢、最高氣溫與最低氣溫並計算中央氣象局之舒適度進行比較,將 109 年度透水鋪面與一般鋪面各月份之平均每日表面最高溫與平均每日表面最低溫相減可知,透水鋪面慢車道平均可相差 22.41°C、透水鋪面快車道平均可相差21.68°C、而一般鋪面則相差 17.63°C,可知透水鋪面慢車道具有較佳之散熱效益,代表透水鋪面不會將白天之熱能積蓄在鋪面中,確實能夠降低都市的熱島效應。且透水鋪面之平均氣溫可較一般鋪面降低0.85°C,其中於夏季平均可降低0.57°C,於冬季平均可降低 0.94°C,可知透水鋪面於冬季時有更好的降溫效果;另外於降雨後平均可降低 1.02°C,可知透水鋪面於降雨後可利用其保水能力而有更好的降溫效果。且透水鋪面之舒適度指數於夏季較一般鋪面低,人體感受到酷熱程度也降低,可知透水鋪面確實可有效降低都市熱島效應。
    另外取 109 年全年之水位計量測資料進行分析,並建立水位與流量之率定公式,針對透水鋪面與一般鋪面之排水性及保水性進行比較,針對兩者之洪峰流量進行分析,由數據分析結果可知透水鋪面與一般鋪面比較,大約可達60%~75%之洪峰削減量,確實可達低衝擊開發之效益。
    最後本研究針對完工後透水鋪面進行成效追蹤,可知透水鋪面的平整度、PCI 值及抗滑值於完工後 6 年期間大致上仍屬於良好狀況,僅現地透水之部分,因完工後均無介入相關之維護手段,透水能力於完工後 3~4 年後即因孔隙堵塞而急遽下降。由此可知本研究所建立之透水鋪面不論是在降低熱島效應與低衝擊開發效益之使用性上、鋪面安全性、舒適性及耐久性均有良好成效,因此最後藉由本研究透水鋪面全生命週期之經驗探討,針對國內透水鋪面相關規範回饋修訂建議,希冀未來透水鋪面可更有效應用於國內之道路工程。;The impact of climate extremes on the world is increasing. As a result, summer temperatures are reaching new highs and daily rainfall is increasing year by year, leading to frequent droughts and floods. The main cause of climate extremes is urban development, where more roads are needed. Therefore, it is a major topic to develop road engineering so that it can not only be used for vehicles but also reduce the impact of the project on the environment. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effect of applying permeable pavement to road engineering, hoping to use the permeable pavement to achieve the benefits of resilient cities. In this study, a demonstration road of general pavement and permeable pavement was established in Dahuaba Street, Luzhu District, Taoyuan City, and monitoring instruments such as thermometers, ground thermometers, and water level gauges were buried in the site. After the construction of the back-end water cycle management system, the site monitoring data could be immediately returned and analyzed. The study mainly discussed the cooling effect of permeable pavement compared with the general pavement and the flood peak reduction effect after rainfall.
    In this study, the rise and fall trend of permeable pavement and general pavement, the maximum and minimum air temperature, and the comfort level of the Central Weather Bureau were compared over 109 years. The results showed that the rise and fall of the surface temperature of permeable pavement were faster than that of general pavement, but the rise and fall of the air temperature in the permeable pavement area were slower than that of general pavement. In addition, the daily maximum and minimum air temperature of permeable pavement throughout the year is lower than that of ordinary pavement, indicating that permeable pavement can effectively regulate air temperature. Permeable pavement in summer (April to September) can be reduced by 0.57°C on average, and in winter (October to March) can be reduced by 0.94°C on average. The comfort index of permeable pavement in summer is lower than that of ordinary pavement, and the degree of heat felt by the human body is also reduced, indicating that permeable pavement can effectively reduce the urban heat island effect.
    In addition, the water level measurement data of 109 years were analyzed, and the law formula of water level and flow was established. The drainage and water retention of permeable pavement and general pavement were compared, and the flood peak discharge of the two was analyzed. According to the data analysis results, it can be seen that the flood peak reduction of permeable pavement can reach 60~75% for general pavement. Indeed, low-impact development benefits can be achieved.
    Finally, this study conducted affect tracking on the pavement after completion. According to the tracking results, the tracking conditions of the smoothness, PCI value, and skid resistance value during the 6 years after completion were still generally in good condition, with only part of the ground permeable. Since there were no maintenance means involved after completion, the water permeable ability dropped sharply after 3~4 years due to the decline of the pore plug. It can be seen that the permeable pavement established in this study has good results in reducing the heat island effect, usability of low-impact development benefits, pavement safety, comfort, and durability. Therefore, based on the experience of the whole life cycle of permeable pavement in this study, the relevant regulations of domestic permeable pavement are revised. It is hoped that permeable pavement can be more effectively used in road projects in the country in the future.
    显示于类别:[土木工程研究所] 博碩士論文

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