博碩士論文 101151013 完整後設資料紀錄

DC 欄位 語言
DC.creatorYung-O Chungen_US
DC.descriptionNational Central Universityen_US
dc.description.abstract摘要 本文以「家學」和「婚姻」探討漢晉時期的婦女自主,以《華陽國志》與《世說新語》此二本各朝具代表性的人物傳記小說為主要探討範圍。此二書分別是常璩與劉義慶兩位男性作家,為兩漢與魏晉時期的人物留下專章記載的書籍。雖然二書中女性所占篇幅均不多,但二位男性能為當時處於社會中相對邊緣和弱勢的女性發聲,仍有其不凡之處。兩位作者的作為與時代背景,以及他們各自的身世環境必有關聯。加上東漢末年至魏晉時期時局動盪,在思想上還是受儒學影響,女性個體在其中如何自處,是耐人尋味的所在。本文即從婚姻與家學兩大方向,及兩書作者的思想背景,探討婦女在動盪的時代中所能自主的空間與項目。 本論文由《華陽國志》和《世說新語》此二書的寫作背景,以及漢晉相關的婦女研究,分析此時期的女性角色和思維。從《華陽國志》中女性角色的描寫,發現漢代的婦女處境與作為可歸納如下:人母重教、養;人妻看職責、情義;人女有法律限制與責任。而從《世說新語》中的女性角色,看見魏晉婦女的風采與表現則是:人母依然強調教養;人婦則大別於其他時代,有才識、德儀、情義的正向表現,也有權力、任性、怨妒的負面形象;人女幼年看才慧,長成之後在擇偶與顧家上分別有突出表現。 從家學盛行的形成和對漢晉婦女的影響,可以見得婦女自主在魏晉時期有逐漸抬頭的趨勢。家學先影響婦女、婦女又影響家庭,形成周而復始的循環關係。就漢代言,家學盛行源於政治的需要,女教的習得與傳承又得力於家學發達。女教以婦德為中心德目進行教化,女教的發揮又側重德與知的教誨傳承。就魏晉而言,家學的盛行在於儒學可以延譽、可以重振家聲、可以求官。家學依然左右著女性的學習,女教來自家庭,女教以德為基、以技求存,而女教的發揮在主中饋、佐君子、教養兒上仍有德、知不同表現。此外,後漢、三國、兩晉各有才女的文學作品流傳,突出表現婦女教育的成果與自我表達的形式,也間接做了女性作主的見證。 從婚姻制度對婦女影響的角度,發現兩代間的貞節和門第觀念尤為影響婦女自主的 空間。從《華陽國志》中可見漢代兩性地位的高低與貞節觀念的變化,左右著婦女的命運。婚配對象的選擇由財富到儒學氣節的看重,同郡婚到跨郡婚的門戶考量,看到婦女對家族的依存與幫襯關係。而婦女在議婚、絕婚中的自主,與誓不改嫁的堅決態度,是婦女在婚姻中所做出的爭取努力,是女性意識的幽微展現。在《世說新語》中可見魏晉時期門第婚姻更加成形,婦女的地位也隨門第高低而有上下,高族的空間優於其他,而玄風興盛造就思想、口才伶俐的士女,在兩性互動上有正面的才、識、情表現,與負面的妒、悍、貪的無所忌憚,婚姻中的離、絕也有自主的呈現。 本文總結家學的盛行和婚姻的名節在女性自主的影響,表現在她們更有能力和勇氣去表達自己。而他們無論是由自己書寫或由他人口耳相傳的側面描寫,兩者皆揭示了這項追求自主的改變,也被記錄在歷史上。期待未來能有更多作品、性別間的觀點,豐富由「家學」和「婚姻」來看婦女自主的議題。 關鍵字:家學、婚姻、婦女自主、華陽國志、世說新語   zh_TW
dc.description.abstractAbstract This research discusses feminine independence from the aspects of “parental teaching” and “marriage” which are described from the two representative biographical novels of Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) and Six dynasties (265-420 AD) respectively: Chronicles of Huayang (Huayang Guo Zhi) and A New Account of the Tales of the World (Shishuo Xinyu). Chang Qu and Liu Yiqing are the authors of the two novels respectively, they recorded the behavior and conversation of the people in those days. Although women did not adopt major roles in the two novels, it is uncommon that the two male authors can stand for women who are inferior of that time and express their true feelings. Chang and Liu’s deeds are related with their own life experience and objective historical backgrounds. Due to the political unrests in the late Han dynasty, people are highly influenced by metaphysics and Confucianism. Within the unstable environment, how feminine individuals get along with the malicious environment would be a valuable issue in academics. Therefore, marriage, parental teaching and the historical backgrounds of the two novelists are the main factors about how women fighting for their independence in marriage. The analysis of female characters and ways of thinking is based on not only Chronicles of Huayang (Huayang Guo Zhi) and A New Account of the Tales of the World (Shishuo Xinyu) but other related research of female in family and marriage. From Chronicles of Huayang (Huayang Guo Zhi), the situation and behavior of women in Han dynasty can be summarized as being as a mother (emphasizes on teaching and raising), a wife (depends on her duty and comradeship) and daughter (has restriction and responsibilities). In contrast, in A New Account of the Tales of the World (Shishuo Xinyu), women in Six dynasties presented differently when being as a wife and a daughter. Wives showed their talents, morals, loyalty, and some negative images as imperiousness, capriciousness and jealousy. Daughters were emphasized on their cleverness in their childhood, but they also performed better in selecting their own husbands later. Women were more independent in Six dynasties due to the formation of parental teaching and the influence of women in last dynasty. Women are affected by their parental teaching, and they would continuously influence their own families based on what they learned. In Han dynasty, the trend of parental teaching was resulted from political needs, which indirectly influence how women learn and continue the system of education. Parental teaching on women focused on building good characters and knowledge. In Six dynasties, the popularity of parental teaching is that Confucianism is useful on gaining reputation for both families and individuals as well as acquiring government jobs. The practice of parental teaching for women is how to do house chores, assisting their husbands and educating their children from parental teaching. Apart from that, women are allowed to write and read, which enabled them expressing themselves and creating literary works. During late Han dynasty, three Kingdoms and Jin dynasties, many famous feminine literary works were published, which presented the achievements of feminine education and self-expression as well as proving women independence. From the perspective of how marriage system influence women, the concept of chastity and pedigree are the main factors influencing on feminine independence. In Chronicles of Huayang (Huayang Guo Zhi), the difference of positions and chastity between sexes shows great influence of females’ life. The standards of selecting marriage partners changed: from the amount of wealth to the level of integrity. However, some women still choose their partners based on household livelihood or gaining better powers, which commonly happened between families with different level of income in the same prefectures as well as respected families between different prefectures. Women’s efforts to earn independence are shown on their expression of marriage negotiation, divorce and the firm attitude of not getting remarried. These action also revealed the awareness of women’s rights. At the time of A New Account of the Tales of the World (Shishuo Xinyu), pedigree became more important in marriage. The position of women was along with their family status. Families of higher classes were prone to connect other similarly respected families by marriage, which affects their parental teaching. Women from families with higher income were better educated. Besides the influence of parental teaching, metaphysics also gave center stage to these well-educated women. They presented positive parts as: talents, knowledge, loyalty; negative parts as jealousy, anger and greed as well as divorce and suicide in marriage within the relationship of both sexes. In conclusion, feminine independence in marriage is influenced by the popularity of parental teaching and the idea of maintaining reputation and integrity in marriage. They were more able and brave to express themselves which is shown in their own literary works and from others’ comments. The progress of pursuing feminine independence in marriage is recorded in the history. Looking forward to the future that more works and perspectives can enrich this issue of how “parental teaching” and “marriage” influences feminine independence. Keywords: parental teaching, marriage, feminine independence, Chronicles of Huayang (Huayang Guo Zhi), A New Account of the Tales of the World (Shishuo Xinyu)   en_US
DC.subjectparental teachingen_US
DC.subjectfeminine independenceen_US
DC.subjectHuayang Guo Zhien_US
DC.subjectShishuo Xinyuen_US
DC.publisherNational Central Universityen_US

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