|dc.description.abstract||The study focuses on the thirteen villages’ alliance in Chong Li, South Tao Yuan region from Ching Dynasty through Japanese rule, and discusses the process of forming and changing in village alliances network. I analyze the people’s activities in this region from four major points which are background of development, religious sphere, local elites, and state power.
In section I of background of development, there was a phenomenon of Fujianese landlords and Cantonese tenants in thirteen villages in Chong Li. Though the number of people belong to Fujianese origin was lesser than the Hakka, people of Fujianese origin still had rental obligation to the landlord. However, in Dao Guang period, since Pan-ch’iao Lin Pen-yuan family merged the farmland which produces tea-leaf in northern Taiwan and the farmland in thirteen villages in Chong Li which was owned to Kuo family of Fujianese origin, the controlling power of Kuo family decreasing in thirteen villages in Chong Li. The Cantonese tenants in thirteen villages in Chong Li used this opportunity to fight with Fujianese landlords across the same genealogy and language.
In section II of religious sphere, when the thirteen villages in Chong Li were arising, the Hakka got together by the religion belief. The local elites in this region developed their nexus of power by the connecting of the Ping Zhen Yi-min Temple and the Chong Li Rehai Mazu Temple. In Japanese rule, they developed a unique rotating worship system to firm their centripetal force in Taiwan. This is the reason why there was a highly developing relationship between Chong Li and Ping Zhen.
In section III of local elites, the local elites competed for controlling power as the thirteen villages in Chong Li arising. They extended their controlling power by participating the temple activities. Thus, I can conclude that they promoted thirteen villages in Chong Li and the rotating worship system.
In section IV of state power, the analysis of this study major in the facilities developed by Japan colonial government from the beginning period of Japanese rule to the ending period. In this period, the biggest effect to this region was the temples movement enforced by Japan colonial government. Because the temples movement destroyed the rotating worships system in thirteen villages in Chong Li, this affected the living style to the regional people.
To summary, this study analyzes the development of thirteen villages in Chong Li from four major points by using the land documents during the Ching Dynasty and the statistical data in Japanese rule to reconstruct the historical background of thirteen villages in Chong Li. Moreover, by analyzing the developing background and the people’ activities, I can also illustrate why there are two major system, fifteen villages alliance in the Fan Liau Yi-min Temple and thirteen villages alliance in the Chong Li and Ping Zhen, in the cult of the Heroes(Yi-min) in the northern Taiwan.||en_US|