|dc.description.abstract||Situated in Xinzhu county, Guanxi township, previously known as“pickle urn” is a ville embraced by mountains and is inhabited mainly by Fujian (Minnan) and Hakka people. Compared with other cities in Taiwan, although more Raoping Hakka dwell there, they remain the minority of the local Hakka. Hence, Raoping Hakka is spoken only within the families or relatives and people use other powerful dialects or sub-dialects to communicate with non- Raoping Hakka. Owing to the powerful clan strength in the old times, Raoping Hakka is preserved and inherits accents from forefathers. However, it starts to transform with the mixture of other dialects and sub-dialects as a result of frequent interaction between Hakka groups in the modern times. As the clan language is circulated in a more closed-end fashion, the transformation speed and condition differ between different surnames, which gives Guanxi Raoping Hakka its diversities. This article targets on two major Raoping Hakka surnames, Zheng’s family in the inner Gua?nxi and Xu’s family in the outer Guanxi, to study the status quo of Guanxi?Raoping Hakka and its changes.
There are seven chapters in the article. The first chapter is introduction. It specifies the study motives, targeted people, environment, study methods and related references. The second chapter depicts the initial consonant, finals, tones, homophones, etc. of Guanxi? Zheng’s and Xu’s Hakka. We compare the Guanxi? Hakka with Middle Chinese in chapter three for the chronological study. The characteristics of Guanxi Raoping Hakka and its inner differences between surnames are elucidated in chapter four. In chapter five, Guanxi?Raoping Hakka was compared with other Raoping Hakkas from different places, such as China Raoyang, Taiwan Zhuolan, Xinwu, and Zhubei for the synchronic study. In chapter six, we discuss the variation of vocabulary change of Raoping Hakka under the influence of other languages. And then we summarize the study result and its academic value in chapter seven.
After the research, although Guanxi Raoping Hakka of different surnames has some differences, the basic phonics of Raoping Hakka is almost the same. As two or three hundred years go by, it is inevitable for the loss or transformation of the languages. Two families not only leaving some characters of pronunciation ,but also combine with other sub-dialect such as Sixian or Hailu. In the aspect of initial consonant, the characteristic initial “v” of group Xiao and group Ying in Raoping Hakka has gradually lost the pronunciation of “v” in some words, and has transformed to the initial “?” ,like Hailu? instead. For example, “Xian” has become from vien24→?an24. The group Zha?ng also appear that the initial consonant become “ts-” from “t?-”, showing the transforming process like t?i→t??→ts?. In the vowel aspect, the words of fourth divisions(deng) without medial “i” also show the character of original country of Raoping, such as “Niao” tau24. In the tone respect, the upper entering(yinru) of Zheng’s is 32 while Xu’s is 2, and the rules of changing tones are fertile with their own characters. In the words aspect, as a result of the language contact, it will be divided into five parts to elucidate, such as “total form-borrowing word” , “part form- borrowing word” , “total phonation-borrowing word”, “part phonation-borrowing word”, and “ particular words of Guanxi Raoping”.
The changing of the” Guanxi?Raoping Hakka language”, in additional to the affect of the outward communication, has more than two kinds of languages due to the combination of the dialect and sub-dialect group when people get married. The latter generations study their first language in the bilingual environments, so it’s inevitable for them to speak combinative languages. The situation of the Guanxi Raoping Hakka, like the miniature of the Raoping Hakka in Taiwan, has kept its original pronunciation coming from original country. Besides, according to the change of the environment and times, all Guanxi?Raoping Hakka coming from different areas bring different pronunciation, which shows fertile performance of languages without one standard pronunciation. Like Dr. Xu Gui Rong said, the variety of pronunciation in Taiwan is the true color of the Raoping Hakka. Different surnames of Guanxi?Raoping with different pronunciation could also comparing with this point of view.