|dc.description.abstract||In 1683, Qing Dynasty conquered Taiwan and established Dao, Fu and Xien with Zongbin. Confucianism was taught and officials were selected. Taiwan was seeing great construction. In the Qing Dynasty from Kangxi to Guangxu of 8 eight emperors, Taiwan had been governed for 212 years (1683-1895). The power of the empire penetrated the whole island. The governance policies changed. The research focuses on exploration of formation and changes of governance rules in Taiwan by the Qing Dynasty to understand the background and thoughts of ruling policies.
In Qing Dynasty, the rule by officials was poor and there were a lot of turmoil. Minnan was suffering the worst rule by officials among all provinces; Taiwan had the worst rule by officials in Minnan. Nevertheless, if rule was really so bad, why were there still a lot of immigrants coming to Taiwan from mainland China with the entire families and friends, considering Taiwan as the new heaven for cultivation?
This is the motive of the paper. From the angle of Qing Dynasty, the researcher takes a closer look at background and thoughts of making policies governing Taiwan and the desired goals to check the results of the policies. Main sources include journals of places in Taiwan, Record of Facts in Qing Dynasty, Draft of History of Qing Dynasty and Examples of Greater Qing Systems in particular thinking of the unique phenomena in Taiwan to see if the governing policies were appropriate from the very beginning to meet the specialty in Taiwan and judge whether the theory of passive rule of Taiwan is fair.
Ruling policies were made by rulers of Qing Dynasty. The main role of ruling is the rulers, not people in Taiwan. The researcher also discusses whether the dispute of active and passive ruling was resulted from the different angles of central and local governments and different between now and past. The researcher concludes, generalizes and analyzes various ruling policies to compare the policies in frontiers, major four provinces in southeastern China and Taiwan.
The subject of the paper is Discussions on Passive Ruling of Taiwan—Reexamining Ruling Policies of Taiwan by Qing Dynasty, exploring the history more than one century ago. The researcher reviews the background, policy-making process and achievements hundreds of years ago. Comparing the studies by earlier scholars, the researcher discusses the theory of passive ruling of Taiwan while proposing the theory of active ruling, focusing on comparison in establishment of administration and military force, dispatch of officials, establishment of culture, economic development and levels that emperors emphasized to prove that Qing Dynasty did have active ruling of Taiwan and the rule is worth praise.