博碩士論文 971201007 完整後設資料紀錄

DC 欄位 語言
DC.contributor中國文學系zh_TW
DC.creator蔡宜汎zh_TW
DC.creatorTsai Ien_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-1-31T07:39:07Z
dc.date.available2012-1-31T07:39:07Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw:88/thesis/view_etd.asp?URN=971201007
dc.contributor.department中國文學系zh_TW
DC.description國立中央大學zh_TW
DC.descriptionNational Central Universityen_US
dc.description.abstract船山思想體系統特異,論及《孟子》中的「性」、「心」、「知言養氣」的工夫論、「王霸之別」、「君權論」等,在概念設定和思想系統上,皆與孟子不同,但又是本於儒家的基本義理而有發揮。為免船山思想受宋明理學概念所擎制,亦避免脫離《大全說‧孟子》的論述對象,本文以船山對《孟子》中各重要議題的回應作為論述主軸。從《大全說‧孟子》對《孟子》的重新詮釋,彰顯出船山重視實踐的思想發展。從船山對《孟子》各論題的側重,除了可描繪出其獨特的義理系統,亦體現出明末清初變革之際的學術轉向。 正文由第二章展開,第二章論「人禽之別」,此章確立船山人性論中的「性」、「情」、「才」定位。首論船山強調「仁義」是人天生本有而能外顯的能力,再論船山以「誠」論孟子之「性善」,是從《孟子》中的「性」之有無善惡論,轉移到「性」如何能顯善的「繼善」論。進而船山重釋「生之謂性」,他認為「情」、「才」亦有「成性」之價值,故從人可以踐「天德」而論人的氣稟、形軀皆貴於禽獸。因此,船山的詮釋是將孟子的貴性說,轉移為氣性貴於合一的道德實踐論。 第三章論「心」,船山對孟子之「求其放心」提出不同的詮解,以「人心」、「道心」之「同體異用」架構「心」的基本概念,並且重釋〈告子上‧15〉中的「思」,是純善且承繼天德而活動的概念,兼具感知以及彰顯道德的能力,因此能統合「人心」、「道心」,是使「心之能徹乎形而上者」。此凸顯理想的道德實踐,是「人心」盡顯「道心」;「小體」盡為「大體」所用,使人之全體生命能渾顯天理。此是在「心」的道德實際中,消弭了《孟子》中「大體」、「小體」呈現二元對立概念的拉鋸。 第四章論工夫,船山重新詮述「知言養氣」章。旨在「養氣」必以「集義」為本,故工夫上是以「心」作為修養之根本,帶動「氣」向外的實踐道德。船山認為「知言」、「養氣」是工夫亦是境界,因其肯定「言」可表現「理」,而「氣」可表現「義」。「知言」是在「知」這方面的「知之大明」;「養氣」是在「行」這方面的「行之造極」,兩方面都是本於「仁義」的修行實踐,最後「知」、「行」相輔相成而能「知行合一」即是「成聖」工夫。 第五章論王霸之辨,船山認為道德開展功業的能力,並因此賦予功業價值。故其「王霸之辨」要求國君不只要本於「仁」,更要真正地掌握並落實「仁術」,如此本於道德而建功立業才得以稱之為「王」。由王者必須以功業保民,論成「內聖」必開「外王」,此是從王霸本質的異同論,轉移到以道德能否成就功業為問題意識。在「理」、「勢」合一的史觀運用上,「史」就是「理」的具體表現,故其討論政治制度並不崇古,亦能從歷史發展的角度下來肯定霸者的建樹。船山以高標準嚴王、霸之辨,要求國君落實仁政以保民,也反映在他趨向以穩定秩序與大一統的格局作為理想政治的典範,故他是以尊君的方向詮解孟子的「民本」思想。然而,船山本於其「理勢說」,透過著書立論,對歷史中的「變」深切反省,體察出歷史以人文為本的道德意涵,而人唯有在道德實踐的活動中,才能從變動的「勢」中體踐其「理」。船山於時代變局中意識到了儒家在「外王」上的限制,才能逼現出儒家內部思想格局朝向實踐的開拓;而船山盡己所能地以道德理論之建立,將觸角延伸向政治制度的課題,才開顯出儒家思想在人文化成上的圓滿境界。 zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe thinking system of Wang Chuanshan is exceptional, his interpretation of various aspects of Mencius including human nature, heart, "the theory of the discipline of identifying discourse and cultivating qi" , "the distinction between the kingly way and hegemony", "the theory of Imperial Power" are different from Mencius in terms of conceptual setting and thinking system. Instead, his elaboration is based on the fundamental argumentation of Confucianism. In order to avoid the limitation of the Neo-Confucianism upon the thinking of Wang Chuanshan’’s philosophy, and also avoid as the discourse with Mencius in “The Complete Sayings in Reading the Four Books”, this paper focuses on Wang Chuanshan’’s responses to important topics of Mencius as the main argument subject. The reinterpretation of Mencius in “The Complete Sayings in Reading the Four Books” highlights the emphasis of practice and orientation of Wang Chuanshan, which not only provides a portrait of his unique argumentation system, but also present the academic shift during the transformation from Ming to Qing dynasty. This paper is divided into five sections. The first section is introduction. The second section discusses "the distinction between human being and animals", and also estabishes the positioning of nature, feeling , body within Chuanshan’’s “study of human nature”. In this section, we first argue that his emphasis of “humaneness and justice” are based on instinct and bear the ability of external expression , then argue that his interpretation of Menius’ “innate goodness” is rooted from honesty, which is based on Menius’’ belief that human nature is no good nor evil, shift to the importance of how human nature can show goodness from “goodness according to moral”, thereby further reinterprets "inborn nature". Wang Chuanshan believed that feeling and body form the value of human nature. As human can practice “heavenly virtue” , he drew the conclusion that both human body and spirit are superior to animals. Therefore, his interpretation is a transformation of Mencius “emphasis of human nature” to a moral practice theory in which Qi and human nature combine together. The third section discusses mind. Wang Chuanshan gave different interpretation about Mencius’’ "seek for the lost mind" , use human mind and moral mind to construct the fundamental concept of mind in way of same-body-different-functions , he also reinterpreted the thinking in Gaozi (I, 15) 〈告子上‧15〉 , which is a concept of purely goodness and a concept of adoption of heavenly virtue and activity, it also combines the abilities of perception and moral practicing , therefore can unify human mind and moral mind , so that “mind can thoroughly understand the divine order of things”. Such emphasis of ideal moral practice shows that human mind is revealed from moral mind. “Sense organs” is manipulated by “mind” , so that human lives can reveal the “divine order of things” . Such moral practice of mind eliminates the binary opposition between sense organs and minds. The fourth section discusses discipline . Wang Chuanshan reinterprets the chapter of "the identifying discourse and cultivating qi". The importance of the cultivation of qi is based on the collection of justice , therefore discipline makes use of mind as the fundamental accomplishments, and cultivates qi as an external moral practice. Wang Chuanshan believed that the identifying discourse and cultivating qi is disciplineas well as a state of mind , as confirms that discourse can express truth , and qi can express justice. Identifying discourse is the "highest level of understanding" , while cultivating qi is the “perfection of behavior”. Both are the practical discipline of humaneness and justice . Lastly, “the understanding and behaviour co-operate” and become saint-to-be discipline. The fifth section discusses "the distinction between the kingly way and hegemony". Wang Chuanshan thought that moral enables achievements , and hereby grants moral the value of achievements. Therefore "the distinction between the kingly way and hegemony" requires the king not only acts based on humaneness, but also practice "the arts of humaneness" . Only one performs and achieves based on moral is really worthy of the name of king. King must protect civilians through achievements. Being an outer king is an essential step to be an inner saint , this also questions whether the shift of the theory about differences and similarities between “the nature of kingly way and hegemony" to moral can enable achievements. en_US
DC.subject讀四書大全說zh_TW
DC.subject王船山zh_TW
DC.subject孟子zh_TW
DC.subject道德實踐zh_TW
DC.subject內聖外王zh_TW
DC.subjectMencianen_US
DC.subjectComplete Explanations of the Study of the Four Ben_US
DC.subjectInwardly a sage and outwardly a kingen_US
DC.subjectWang Chuan-shanen_US
DC.subjectmoral practiceen_US
DC.title王船山《讀四書大全說》之孟學研究zh_TW
dc.language.isozh-TWzh-TW
DC.titleThe Study of The Mencian Philosophy in Wang Chuan-shan’s “Complete Explanations of the Study of the Four Books”en_US
DC.type博碩士論文zh_TW
DC.typethesisen_US
DC.publisherNational Central Universityen_US

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