博碩士論文 981305009 完整後設資料紀錄

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DC.creatorChih-yuan Chien_US
DC.descriptionNational Central Universityen_US
dc.description.abstract西藏地區位處中國西南隅,加上氣候多變,且地勢高聳等特性,使得西藏得以成為一個有別於漢民族統治的中國的地方。正因如此的特性,更可看出經營西藏的困難點。自唐以降,西藏地區與中國的互動逐漸頻繁,而後元、明、清三朝對西藏均採行羈縻的手段,充分利用當地統治者來進行統治策略。而中華民國成立之後,由於內憂外患不斷,加上外國勢力之影響,使得西藏得以脫離中國的掌控。 1949年,中華人民共和國成立,基於「西藏是中國不可分割的一部分」為緣由,毛澤東下令要求解決西藏問題。1950年,中共在幾經多次與西藏噶廈交涉無效後,企圖以戰迫和。解放軍攻陷西藏地區東部之昌都,西藏噶廈被迫於1951年任命阿沛‧阿旺晉美為談判代表,並與中共簽署〈十七條協議〉。而出走亞東之十四世達賴喇嘛丹增嘉措則在中共駐藏代表張經武的勸說之下返回拉薩,揭開「一國兩制」的序幕。 然而中共的統治並非如預期的順利,其首先面臨到的就是西藏上層人士的不配合,使得中共面臨極大的困難。另外,解放軍所需糧食數量龐大,也因此讓拉薩地區的物價攀升。於1952年,爆發「人民會議」事件,藏人向張經武遞交陳情書,反對中共解放軍及官員駐進拉薩。 由於「人民會議」的關係,中共暫緩改革的腳步,轉而以政治為主,企圖將政治局勢穩定,並配合教育來宣導與灌輸和邀請西藏方面派遣代表團到北京訪問。除此之外,1954年之康藏、青藏公路全線通車,除便利交通之外,其政治、軍事考量亦極為重要。 1956年,西藏自治區籌備委員會成立,藏族人士既期待自治的權利但又懼怕西藏自治區只是中共為了施行改革所做的準備。雖然毛澤東多次表達西藏地區無期限暫緩「民主改革」,但是只限定於西藏地區,而位處四川省境內之康區藏人則不在此限。1957年,原先在四川藏族地區的反「民主改革」武裝抗爭人士在拉薩成立「曲細崗珠」的組織,並且與位於西藏地區的藏人進行連結。 1959年,雙方之間不信任已達極限。3月17日,在炮擊發生後,達賴喇嘛決定出逃印度。而中共亦於3月20日開始對拉薩進行攻擊。拉薩戰役結束後,中共便開始進行所謂的「平叛」工作,且因達賴出走,使得中共中央在西藏可以毫無顧忌的推行「民主改革」。而此時中共才算真正控制西藏。 zh_TW
dc.description.abstractTibet is a region that lies in the southwestern of China. With its rapid-changing climate, elevated terrain and other characteristics, Tibet is a region different from other parts of Han-dominated China. These unique characteristics also made the administration of Tibet very difficult. Since the Tang dynasty, contact between the Tibetan regions and China became increasingly frequent. The Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties came afterwards all adopted the “jimi” methods, an administrative policy that made use of local elites to govern Tibet. However, due to the unceasing foreign and internal upheavals after the ascension of the Republic of China and the influences of foreign powers, Tibet was able to free itself from Chinese ruling. When the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, Mao Zedong ordered a solution for the Tibetan issue on the basis of “Tibet being an inseparable part of China”. In 1950, Communist China attempted to force military unification after a series of ineffective negotiations with the Tibetan Kashag. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) invaded and occupied Qamdo in eastern Tibet, forcing the Tibetan Kashag to name Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme as a representative to negotiate with Communist China, signing the 17 Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet. The 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, who had retreated to Chomo Zong, was advised by Zhang Jingwu, the Chinese Communist Party Representative in Tibet, to return to Lhasa, initiating an era of “one nation, two systems”. However, the rule of Communist China was not as smooth as they had expected. They first encountered insubordination from members of the Tibetan upper-class, leading to great difficulties. At the same time, the presence of the PLA required large amounts of food, driving up prices in the Lhasa area. In 1952, the People’s Committee event erupted. As a result, the Tibetans wrote a letter to Zhang Jingwu protesting against the presence of the PLA and Chinese officials in Lhasa. Due to the People’s Committee Incident, Communist China slowed down its process of reforming Tibet, turning the focus to politics. They attempted to bring about a stable political environment, and combined educational measures for propaganda and indoctrination, inviting the Tibetans to send representatives and visit Beijing. At the same time, road construction projects running from Kangdin and Qinghai to Tibet were completed. Besides providing easier access, the political and military values of the highways were also extremely important. In 1956, the Provisional Committee of the Tibetan Autonomous Region was established. The Tibetans expected to have autonomous rights, but were afraid that the designation was a means by which Communist China could prepare and pursue reforms. Although Mao Zedong had repeatedly expressed that “democratic reforms” in the Tibet would be delayed indefinitely, the statement was restricted only to Tibet proper. Tibetans living in the Kangdin region in Sichuan province was not amongst them. In 1957, members of the armed resistance against the “democratic reforms” in Tibetan regions of Sichuan formed the “Chushi Gangdruk” organization in Lhasa, and started joining forces with Tibetans in Tibet proper. In 1959, mutual distrust between Communist China and the Tibetan elites had reached its limits. On March 17, the Dalai Lama decided to escape to India when the artillery bombardment began. Communist China also started attacking Lhasa on March 20. After the battle of Lhasa, the Communists initiated the so called “suppression of rebels”. Since the Dalai Lama had escaped, the Central Government of China was able to pursue “democratic reforms” without rebellion. It was only by this time that Communist China truly controlled Tibet. en_US
DC.subject17 Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberationen_US
DC.subjectDalai Lamaen_US
DC.subjectMao Zedongen_US
DC.titleStudies of Communist China’s Administration of Tibet in the Early Period of China’s Nation Building (1949-1959)en_US
DC.publisherNational Central Universityen_US

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