||At first, it is necessary to go through product position procedure in understanding the real demands from homebuyers’ point of view in order to have an excellent planning outcome. As a result, homebuyers will benefit from these products; in return, the real estate company will become profitable and continue its growth as well. Many of the researchers had proposed that the result of quality management is positively related with the organization performance. In this study, the characteristics of planning operation are discussed to find out the relationships between the business type, the product position strategy, and the quality management to improve the planning performance and to be established as a reference for future studies in this industry.|
The main methods used in this study are literature review, questionnaire investigation, expert interview, statistics, and multivariate analysis. In terms of the literature review, theories and empirical literatures from domestic and foreign countries relating to total quality management, product position, and product planning are collected and used as the groundwork for establishing the research frame in this study. In regard to questionnaire used in this survey, it was designed with Likert / summated scales first. Furthermore, 10 high-level managers that have practical experience and academic researchers are interviewed to evaluate the questionnaire validity of this study. Then the investigation is implemented again by using the questionnaires that have been modified by pretest and item analysis. Finally, there are 116 valid samples to be collected. The quantity data of these samples were analyzed to conduct statistic and multivariate analysis using methods such as factor analysis, chi-square test, two-way ANOVA and multiple regression analysis.
First of all, operation modes based on their degree of vertical integration from domestic real estate industries can be classified into the following three types: basic, complex and sustained. By using the cluster analysis method, these companies are further categorized into the active type, common type and passive type according to their degree of implementation in the area of total quality management. In addition, they are also grouped into the innovation type and the progressive type in accordance with their different strategies for defining product position. Then, according to the characteristics mentioned above, they are divided into groups for further analysis. Finally, the following conclusions are reached after conducting comparative induction analysis on these groups:
1.After the chi-square test, it is found that there exists a correlated pattern between the degree of vertical integration, total quality management, and the product position for domestic real estate companies. For companies that implement active total quality management and innovative product position strategy, their degrees of vertical integration tend to move toward the sustained type. However, it can be seen obviously that there is a difference in terms of locations. That is, due to the facts that there are more newly-developed business circles and more public facilities to be constructed in the southern area with greater competitions among these building companies, the product position pattern for companies located in the southern part of Taiwan has a tendency to utilize a more aggressive and innovative strategy as compared with the companies located in other areas. It becomes clear that the real estate companies should adopt actively the strategies of total quality management, product position and sustained pattern to confront the highly changeable and competitive environment in the future. Therefore, the entirety and the continuity of the product planning and service of their companies will be promoted.
2.After the factor analysis, it is found that domestic real estate companies have focused the total quality management on factors such as leadership ability, human resource management, process management, suppliers’ management, continuous improvement and information management; whereas their focus on the product position factors are cost plus value, object clients, safe and management and image of resource. Moreover, their focusing factors on planning performance are technical representation, utilization of product, conformity of benefit, user’s satisfaction and availability of maintenance. These factors mentioned above have already been established by this study as the scaling questionnaires with their reliability and validity being examined to have passed the test; therefore, they can be used as the references to assess the degree of satisfaction in executing the total quality management, formulating the strategy of product position, and planning operation result for domestic companies.
3.As mentioned above, there is a significant and interactive influence between the product position pattern, the total quality management factors and the planning performance factors for real estate companies. Among these factors, the most significant ones are stated as follows:
(1)In respect of the total quality management factors, continuous improvement and information management as well as suppliers’ management are two core concepts in terms of the total quality management. For this reason, both of these factors are carried out actively by nationwide real estate companies without showing much difference in different areas. Nevertheless, companies in the northern part of Taiwan implement the human resource management factor more aggressively than those in other areas. On the other hand, the real estate companies in the Northern and the Central parts of Taiwan execute the process management factor much better as compared with the other areas. In other words, the area factor will affect the priorities set by the companies in terms of the total quality management. However, due to the uncertain and ever-competitive environment, decision-makers should spend time to visit and exchange ideas with other companies located in different areas such that a practical strategy of promoting total quality management can be implemented in their companies. This is a direction of which it is worth the emphasis to be adopted for each company.
(2)As for the product position factors, the difference resulting from area factor is not much. The only item that worth mentioning is that the companies in the Southern area emphasize more on factor of object clients. This is because there have been more newly-developed public constructions needed in the southern area recently, which makes companies redefine the object market in order to discover more opportunities. This explains why the direction of the object client in the product position will be influenced by the environmental factor. Furthermore, the real estate companies located in other areas should be able to create more object market and develop proper product within the accessible market to generate the base value.
(3)As to the planning performance factors, the technical representation and the availability of maintenance are the two basic abilities for the real estate companies to participate in the competitive market; hence, there isn’t any significant difference with respect to the locations. As far as the user’s satisfaction and the conformity of benefit are concerned, companies of sustained type and complex type are better than those of basic type. This indicates that the real estate company should pay more attention to the planning result and meet consumers’ expectation; in addition, it needs to think hard how to convert the demands of clients into the practical products as a result of both lands being diminished continuously in the urban area and the serious situation of excessive empty houses. Therefore, the company should be reformed to become the complex type or the sustained type, which is capable of integrating and coordinating the comments from each related department in order to compete in the future market.
(4)With regard to the technical representation factor of planning performance, the product position pattern and the total quality management type are interactively related to each other. In addition, active total quality management in conjunction with product position of innovative type will improve the performance of technical representation effectively. In other words, each of the real estate companies should actively and continuously promote the cooperation between the activities of the total quality management and the product position pattern.
(5)The leadership ability of the total quality management and the suppliers’ management factor in addition to the safety management factor of product position have the greatest influence on planning performance. Therefore, the domestic real estate companies should firstly promote these three factors mentioned above to effectively improve the project’s planning performance.
According to the results analyzed from above, there are several suggestions proposed by this study to be used in real estate industries as reference for further study:
1.To urge and materialize the establishment of the total quality management system for a real estate company, the following five factors: leadership ability, human resource management, process management, suppliers’ management, continuous improvement and information management should be employed as the assessment indicators for managing company. In other words, the company should take measures to encourage all employees participating in such quality assurance activities and to emphasize the importance of factors including continuous improvement, information collection, process standardization requirement, continuous human resource management and training, and enhancement of the relationships with the suppliers to enrich the planning performance.
2.Since there exists significant difference for some areas in response to reactions from various indicators, the domestic real estate companies should confront the market and the competition encountered in each area. Furthermore, the company should also refer to the effective measures implemented by other areas to improve company’s planning quality.
3.It is recommended that other phases (design phase, construction phase and the marketing phase) as well as factors affecting the success of quality management (communication, schedule control and equipment supply) can be used as topics to investigate a real estate company for further research to develop a complete evaluation system. Finally, these measurable components just mentioned above can be applied to compare with other objective and quantitative indicators (investment rate of return and finance report of listed firm) in order to provide a complete reference for companies and the related academic institutes.
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