博碩士論文 88321049 詳細資訊




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姓名 林家弘( Jia-Hong Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 化學工程與材料工程學系
論文名稱 四丁基銨鹽之溶解度、締合常數、活性係數及分佈係數
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摘要(中) 本實驗研究四丁基銨鹽Bu4NX (X = I, Br, Cl, ClO4, OH, HSO4)對於溶劑中之飽和溶解度CS,極限導電度 ,締合常數KA,平均活性係數 及分佈係數Kp對於溶劑性質之介電常數 與其陰離子半徑之關係。本研究先探討 等溶劑性質間之相關性如下: 歸納分析256種溶劑性質之介電常數 、偶極距 、溶解參數 之關係。當溶劑為aprotic solvents時,以 對 作圖,其結果符合Debye equation,但當溶劑為protic solvents時,則與Debye equation不符;溶劑為aprotic aliphatics且 時 與 約成現性關係。溶劑為aprotic aromatics solvent與 protic solvents時 與 約呈線性關係。(A) 飽和溶解度CS:(1)四丁銨鹽之飽和溶解度隨其陰離子半徑之增加而減小 ( < < );(2)四丁銨鹽之飽和溶解度與溶劑性質之介電常數有關, 隨著 之增加約成線性增加。(B) 極限導電度 與締合常數KA:(1)大部分溶劑之黏度越大,則其極限導電度 較小之,此與Walden’s equation相符。(2)四丁基銨鹽之陰離子半徑越大則其締合常數越小。 > > > > 故於相同溶劑中之 ;(3)四丁基銨鹽之締合常數與溶劑性質之介電常數 有關, 隨著 之增加約成線性增加。(C) 活性係數 :(1)使用Debye-Huckel liminting求得之活性係數,在濃度達10-3 M時約有6 % 之誤差,故以導電度方程式求締合常數時,實驗濃度應低於10-3 M較準確;(2)使用 對 和 對 作圖,以求取活性係數,是一種十分簡便之實驗求法。(D) 分佈係數:(1)四丁基銨鹽之分佈係數與溶劑性質之介電常數 有關, 隨著 之增加略成線性減小;(2)四丁基銨鹽之分佈係數與其油相濃度相關,此與其分佈係數有關。由於活性係數對濃度作圖所產生之極小值,故分佈係數對油相之濃度作圖會相對的產生一極大值。
關鍵字(中) ★ 溶解度
★ 締合常數
★ 活性係數
★ 四丁基銨鹽
★ 分布係數
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 摘要……….…………………………………………….I
目錄……………………………………………………III
圖目錄…………………………………………………IX
表目錄………………………………………………..XV
符號說明…………………………………………….XVI
第一章 緒論
1-1 本研究之動機與主旨……………………………………..1
1-2 影響催化活性之因素……………………………………..2
1-3 締合常數…………………………………………………..2
1-3-1 以導電度方程式求締合常數………………………………….…2
1-3-1.1 Fuoss-Kraus equation (FK)…………………………………………………2
1-3-1.2 Shedlovsky equation (SE)…………………………………………………..3
1-3-1.3 Fuoss-Shedlovsky equation (FS)……………………………………………3
1-3-1.4 Pitts equation (PE)…………………………………………………………..4
1-3-1.5 Fuoss-Onsager-Skinner equation (FOS)…………………………………….5
1-3-1.6 Fuoss-Hsia equation (FH)…………………………………………………...6
1-3-1.7 Fuoss-Hsia-Fuoss-Pitts-Justice equation (FHFPJ)………………………….6
1-3-1.8 Fuoss equation (FE)…………………………………………………………7
1-3-1.9 Lee-Wheaton equation (LW)………………………………………………..8
1-3-1.10 modification of Debye-Huckel-Onsager equation (DHO)………………….8
1-3-2 以非導電度法求締合常數……………………………………….8
1-3-3無限稀釋溶液莫爾導電度( )與離子對締合常數( )之文獻值
比較與討論……………………………………………………10
1-3-3.1 四丁基銨氯鹽( )之( )與( )之文獻值比較………………….10
1-3-3.2 四丁基銨溴鹽( )之( )與( )之文獻值比較………………….11
1-3-3.3 四丁基銨碘鹽( )之( ) 與( )之文獻值比較………………….13
1-3-3.4 四丁基銨過氯酸鹽( )之( )與( )之文獻值比較………….17
1-3-3.5 四丁基銨四酚硼鹽( )之( )與( )之文獻值比較………….18
1-3-3.6 四丁基銨四丁基硼鹽( )之( )與( )之文獻值比較……….19
1-3-3.7 四丁基銨硝酸鹽( )之( )與( )之文獻值比較……………...20
1-3-3.8 四丁基銨苦味酸鹽( )之( )與( )之文獻比較..20
1-3-3.9 討論………..………………………………………………………………20
1-4 四丁基銨鹽之飽和溶解度………………………………21
1-4-1 四丁基銨鹽飽和溶解度之文獻整理…………………………...21
1-4-2 四丁基銨鹽飽和溶解度之文獻值比較與討論………………...23
1-4-2.1 四丁基銨鹽在單一溶劑中之 ………………………………………….23
1-4-2.2 四丁基銨鹽在混合溶劑中之 ………………………………………….24
1-4-2.3 討論………………………………………………………………………..25
1-5 四丁基銨鹽之活性係數………………………………..25
1-5-1 活性係數之計算方法…………………………………………...25
1-5-1.1 Debye-Huckel limiting law…………………………………………………..25
1-5-1.2 Pitzer equation……………………………………………………………….26
1-5-2 四丁基銨鹽活性係數之文獻整理……………………………...26
1-6 四丁基銨鹽之分佈係數與萃取常數…………………..27
1-6-1 四丁基銨鹽之分佈係數………………………………………...27
1-6-1.1 四丁基銨鹽分佈係數之文獻整理………………………………………..27
1-6-1.2 四丁基銨鹽分佈係數(KP)之文獻值比較………………………………...28
1-6-2 四丁基銨鹽之萃取常數………………………………………...28
1-6-2.1 四丁基銨鹽萃取常數之文獻整理………………………………………..29
1-6-2.2 四丁基銨鹽在有機溶劑/水之萃取常數(KE)之文獻值比較……………..30
1-6-2.3 討論………………………………………………………………………..32
1-7 四丁基銨鹽之離子半徑………………………………..32
1-7-1 Stokes radii( )…………………………………………………...32
1-7-1.1 四丁基銨鹽Stokes radii之文獻整理……………………………………..33
1-7-1.2 四丁基銨鹽Stokes radii之文獻值比較…………………………………..33
1-7-2 solvated radii ( )………………………………………………...35
1-7-2.1 四丁基銨鹽solvated radii之文獻整理……………………………………36
1-7-2.2 四丁基銨鹽solvated radii之文獻值比較…………………………………37
1-7-3 crystallographic radius……………………………………………39
1-7-4 討論……………………………………………………………...39
1-8 本研究之方法與步驟…………………………………..39
第二章 理論…………………………………...……...41
2-1 溶劑性質間之關係……………………………………....41
2-2 粒子間之作用……………………………………………48
2-2-1 離子-溶劑間之作用……………………………………………..48
2-2-1.1 Born model………………………………………………………………...48
2-2-1.2 Ion-dipole model…………………………………………………………...48
2-2-1.3 Ion-induced model…………………………………………………………49
2-2-2 極性與極性分子間之作用……………………………………...49
2-2-2.1 Dipole-dipole model……………………………………………………….49
2-2-2.2 Dipole- induced dipole model……………………………………………..50
2-3 溶劑性質與季銨鹽陰離子結構對該鹽溶解度CS之影響
…………………………………………………….……..51
2-4 Debye-Huckel Onsager導電度方程式...…………………52
2-4-1 Electrophoretic retarding force, ………………………………52
2-4-2 Relaxation retarding force, …………………………………...53
2-4-3 離子在溶劑中所受之總力, …………….……..…………..54
2-4-4 Debye-Huckel-Onsager Equation………………………………...55
2-5 締合常數KA與莫耳導電度 之關係式.………………..57
2-6 、KA與 之實驗求法…………………………….…...61
2-6-1 初值之求法…………………………………………………..61
2-6-2 及KA之實驗求法…..…………..……………………….……62
2-6-3 之求法……………..…………..……………………….……62
2-7 溶劑性質與催化劑結構對締合常數KA之影響………..63
2-8 溶劑性質與催化劑結構對分佈係數KP之影響………...64
第三章 實驗部分…………………………..………....66
3-1 實驗與分析之藥品………………………………………66
3-2 實驗裝置及分析儀器……………………………………67
3-2-1 實驗裝置………………………………………………………...67
3-2-1.1 溶解度……………………………………………………………………..67
3-2-1.2 締合常數及分佈係數……………………………………………………..67
3-2-2 離心裝置………………………………………………………...68
3-2-3 導電度計………………………………………………………...68
3-3 導電度之分析……………………………………………68
3-3-1 導電度計之分析條件…………………………………………...68
3-3-2 導電度計之校正………………………………………………...69
3-3-3 之校正曲線……………………………………………….69
3-3-4 樣品分析………………………………………………………...69
3-4實驗項目………………………………………………….70
3-4-1 溶劑性質對四丁基銨鹽飽和溶解度Cs之影響………………..70
3-4-2 四丁基銨鹽結構對其飽和溶解度Cs之影響…………………..70
3-4-3 溶劑性質對四丁基銨鹽之極限離子導電度 及離子對締合常數KA之影響……………………………………………………70
3-4-4 四丁基銨鹽結構對其極限離子導電度 及其離子對締合常數KA之影響……………………………………………………….71
3-4-5 溶劑性質對四丁基銨鹽分佈係數之影響……………………...71
3-4-6 四丁基銨鹽結構對其分佈係數之影響………………………...72
3-5實驗操作步驟…………………………………………….72
3-5-1 溶解度測定……………………………………………………...72
3-5-2 締合常數實驗…………………………………………………...73
3-5-3 分佈係數實驗…………………………………………………...73
第四章 結果與討論…………………………………..75
4-1 四丁基銨鹽之飽和溶解度 (CS)………………………...75
4-1-1 四丁基銨鹽陰離子對其飽和溶解度CS之影響………………..75
4-1-2 溶劑性質對四丁基銨鹽飽和溶解度之影響…………………..76
4-2 四丁基銨鹽之極限導電度 與締合常數KA………….77
4-2-1 四丁基銨鹽陰離子結構對其締合常數KA之影響……………..77
4-2-2 溶劑性質對四丁基銨鹽極限導電度 與締合常數KA之影響
…………………………………………………………………..77
4-2-2.1 溶劑性質對四丁基銨鹽極限導電度 之影響……………………….77
4-2-2.2 溶劑性質對四丁基銨鹽締合常數KA之影響…………………………….78
4-3 四丁基銨鹽之活性係數…………………………………78
4-4 四丁基銨鹽之分佈係數…………………………………79
4-4-1 溶劑性質對四丁基銨鹽分佈係數之影響……………………..79
4-4-2 濃度對四丁基銨鹽分佈之影響………………………………..80
第五章 結論……………………………………….123
參考文獻……………………………………………..126
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指導教授 王天財(Ten-Tsai Wang) 審核日期 2001-7-9
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