博碩士論文 100122012 詳細資訊




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姓名 何然平(Jan-ping Ho)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 英美語文學系
論文名稱 好萊塢電影的佛學轉向: 《駭客任務》、《隔離島》與《全面啟動》中的佛學空性智慧
(The Buddhist Turn of Hollywood Movies: The Wisdom of Buddhist Emptiness in The Matrix (1999), Shutter Island (2010) and Inception (2012))
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摘要(中) 本文旨在闡述佛學的「空性」(emptiness)智慧蘊含於當代好萊塢電影中,以《駭客任務》、《全面啟動》和《隔離島》為例。古今中外空性的探究不外乎聚焦於人類心性的調伏,藉此使得個人或眾生得以超脫萬物生滅的大千世界,遠離六道輪迴。佛教經典的鑽研不僅是東方宗教、哲學和文學的範疇,西方研究佛學的發展也不容小覷。例如如何看待人生的「苦」,佛學與心理學分別有各自的見解。此外,晚近對於佛教電影的重視也不容小覷。國際佛教電影節(International Buddhist Film Festival)成立2000年,並於2003年起在世界各地舉辦佛教電影活動。為此,佛學在電影中的影響促成John Whalen-Bridge對佛教電影的定義並認為那些乍看是好萊塢商業賣座的電影,實則隱含了佛學智慧,也應該被「徵集」(draft)為佛學電影。因此,本文嘗試處理兩個主要的問題:第一,佛學為何需要融入於電影題材中?電影對於佛學有何特殊意義?第二,東方佛學觀點是如何被挪用在好萊塢電影元素中?佛學透過電影的詮釋與轉化的過程中,究竟對美國文化有什麼影響?

本文希望以電影做為近代新興媒體的形式點出佛學的智慧在時代更迭的洪流中仍舊深值人心,且成為電影製作取材的對象。電影作為一種傳達佛法的媒材,並以說故事的方式,使觀眾能夠透過觀影的愉悅過程中,也可以得到人生空性的啟發。因此,佛教電影以故事敘說的方式使觀眾可以在人生的苦海中領悟佛法的空性智慧。第一章是探討「四聖諦」對「苦」的見解,並指出好萊塢電影也同樣地呈現人生在世經歷種種苦難的議題;原來苦是由人的「我執」(self-attachment)所形成。第二章則討論東方佛學與西方心理學對於「苦」或是「創傷」的見解,以及佛學與心理學對於「我」的不同看法,如何再在電影中呈現。如何從我執中解脫必須透過「空性」的理解,因此第三章是以《心經》的「五蘊」(five aggregates)和《金剛經》中的「否定邏輯」(logic of negation)來闡述空性智慧在電影中的運用。最後,好萊塢電影的佛學轉向指出佛學作為好萊塢電影的取經對象,且電影也呈現美國對佛學的另類見解;同時佛學也對電影評論提供新的分析方法。

摘要(英) This paper aims to argue that the Buddhist turn of Hollywood film is illustrated by The Matrix (1999), Shutter Island (2010) and Inception (2012). Buddhist films thus came as a genre that begins to influence the production of Hollywood films when International Buddhist Film Festival (IBFF), founded in 2000, began to launch the concept of the Buddhist film in 2003 in Los Angeles, according to John Whalen-Bridge’s Some (Hollywood) Versions of Enlightenment (1). Buddhism, with its “inherent adaptability” to various fields, has been employed as a filmic element in Hollywood films, and has its secular form in American culture (Brannigan 109). Through the thesis of Buddhist turn of Hollywood films, I try to tackle the following questions: first, why does the Hollywood films need Buddhist thinking as a filmic element? Or, in other words, why does Buddhism need to be employed by Hollywood films? Second, in what way is Buddhist emptiness being appropriated in Hollywood non-Buddhist Buddhist films?

Human suffering is the core concept in Buddhism and psychology, both of which try to find solutions to ending the suffering in life. Hollywood films as an emerging media play the role of storytelling from which the unenlightened people can find the path to liberate. By storytelling of Hollywood films, people having attached to the self are more likely to accept the ultimate truth of emptiness. Since Buddhism is appropriated by Hollywood films, it is inevitable to see Buddhist secularization that satisfies oriental fantasy and illustrates understandings of Buddhism in an American way. In chapter one, to emphasize the issue of human suffering, I introduce the Buddhist thought of Four Noble Truths and their functions in Hollywood films. In chapter two, I will discuss Buddhist and psychological aspects of human suffering, or trauma, and the problematic issue of self through Hollywood films. In chapter three, once the catalyst and formation of suffering is deciphered, we should focus on the Buddhist wisdom of emptiness that can help people liberate from the prison of mind. To understand emptiness, I will explain it through five aggregates in the Heart Sutra and the logic of negation in the Diamond Sutra, as well as the illustrations in Hollywood films. The combination of Buddhism and Hollywood films can present the American understanding of Buddhism, and the offer a new approach to film criticism.
關鍵字(中) ★ 佛學
★ 電影
★ 空性
★ 精神分析
關鍵字(英) ★ Buddhism
★ films
★ emptiness
★ psychoanalysis
論文目次 Abstract ………………………………………………………………………….…… i

Chinese Abstract ………………………………………………………………….… iii

Introduction……………………………………………………………………….….. 2

Chapter One: Buddhist Thoughts of the Four Noble Truths in Popular Films ………15

Chapter Two: Buddhist and Psychological Perspectives on Suffering in The Matrix, Shutter Island and Inception…………………………..……………………………..28

Chapter Three: Unveiling Emptiness in The Matrix, Shutter Island and Inception …44

Conclusion ……..…………………………………………………………………… 79

Works Cited…………………………………………………………………………..83



參考文獻 Film Sources

Inception. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Perf. Leonardo DiCaprio. Warner Bros. 2010. Film.

The Matrix. Dir. The Wachowskis. Perf. Keanu Reeves. Warner Bros. 1999. Film.

Shutter Island. Dir. Martin Scorsese. Perf. Leonardo DiCaprio. Paramount Pictures. 2010. Film.



English Sources

Anderson, Richard C., and David A. Harper. "Dying to Be Free: The Emergence of "American Militant Buddhism" in Popular Culture." Buddhism and American Cinema. Eds. Whalen-Bridge, John and Gary Storhoff: SUNY Press, 2014. 133-55. Print.

Blessing, Kimberly. "Mal-Placed Regret." Inception and Philosophy: Because It′s Never Just a Dream. Ed. Johnson, David Kyle. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ed. Johnson, David Kyle. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. 295-309. Print.

Brannigan, Michael. "There Is No Spoon: A Buddhist Mirror." He Matrix and Philosophy: Welcome to the Desert of the Real. Ed. Irwin, Willam. New York: HarperCollins . 2002. 101-10. Print.

Caruth, Cathy, ed. Trauma: Explorations in Memory. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. Print.

Chuang, Rueyling. "An Examination of Taoist and Buddhist Perspectives on Interpersonal Conflicts, Emotions, and Adversities." Intercultural Communication: A Global Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (2004): 38-50. Print.

Chung, Chin-Mei. "Trauma and the Return of the Dead Wives in Scorceses′s Shutter Island and Nolan′s Inception." Master thesis of Graduate Institute of English, Chinese Cultural University. 2013. Print.

Dunbar, Scott Daniel. "Unlocking the Vault of the Mind: Inception and Aisan Philosophy." Inception and Philosophy: Because It′s Never Just a Dream. Ed. Johnson, David Kyle. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 276-91. Print.

Edelglass, William, and Garfield, eds. Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc, 2009. Print.

Felman, Shoshana, and Dori Laub. Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History. Taylor & Francis, 1992. Print.

Ford, James L. "Buddhism, Mythology, and the Matrix." Taking the Red Pill: Science, Philosphy and the Religion in the Matrix. Glenn Yeffeth: BenBella Books, Inc., 2003. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. "On Narcissism: An Introduction." S.E. 14 (1914): 67-102. Print.

---. The Standard Edition of Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Frued: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Group Psychology, and Other Works. Trans. Strachey, James. Vol. 18. London: The Hogarth Press Limited, 1955. Print.

Gach, Gary. "Afterword: On Being Luminous." Buddhism and American Cinema. Eds.

Whalen-Bridge, John and Gary Storhoff. Albany: State University of New York Press,

2014. 215-25. Print.

Jones, Richard H. The Heart of Buddhist Wisdom. New York: Jackson Square Books, 2012. Print.

Khyentse, Dzongsar Jamyang. Not for Happiness. Shambhala Publications, 2012. Print.

Korsmeyer, Carolyn. "Seeing, Believing, Touching, Truth." The Matrix and Philosophy: Welcome to the Desert of the Real. Ed. Irwin, Willam. New York: HarperCollins Inc., 2002. 41-52. Print.

Lama, The Dalai. The Middle Way: Faith Grounded in Reason. Trans. Thupten, Jinpa. Boston: Wisdom Publication, 2014. Print.

Lawrence, Matt. Like a Splinter in Your Mind: The Philosophy Behind the Matrix Trilogy. Blackwell London,, England, 2004. Print.

Lu, Louis Wei-Lun, and Wen-Yu Chiang. "Emptiness We Live By: Metaphors and Paradoxes in Buddhism′s Heart Sutra." Metaphor and Symbol 22.4 (2007): 331-55. Print.

Mikulas, William. "Buddhism & Western Psychology: Fundamentals of Integration." Journal of Consciousness Studies 14.4 (2007): 4-49. Print.

Mitchell, Scott A. "Buddhism, Pop-Culture, and the Homogenization of the Dharma." XIV Biennial Meeting of the International Association of Shin Buddhist Studies. Kyoto, Japan, June 2009. Print.

Nagatomo, Shigenori. "The Logic of the Diamond Sutra: A is Not A, Therefore It is A." Asian Philosophy 10.3 (2000): 213-44. Print.

Renger, Almut-Barbara. "Buddhism and Film—Inter-Relation and Interpenetration: Reflections on an Emerging Research Field." Contemporary Buddhism 15.1 (2014): 1-27. Print.

Rubin, Jeffrey B. Psychotherapy and Buddhism: Toward an Integration. New York: Plenum Press, 1996. Print.

Rycroft, Charles. Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. 2 ed. New York: Penquin Books, 1995. Print.

Safran, Jeremy D. "Introduction: Psychoanalysis and Buddhism as Cultural Institutions." Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: An Unfolding Dialogue. Ed. Safran, Jeremy D. Boston: Wisdom Publications Inc, 2003. Print.

Schuchardt, Read Mercer. "What Is the Matrix?" Taking the Red Pill: Philosophy and Religion in the Matrix. Ed. Yeffeth, Glenn. U.S.A.: BenBella Books Inc., 2003. 5-21. Print.

Struhl, Karsten J. "Buddhism, Our Desperation, and American Cinema." Buddhism and American Cinema. Eds. Whalen-Bridge, John and Gary Storhoff. Albany: State of New York Press, 2014. Print.

Trungpa, Chogyam. The Sanity We Are Born With: A Buddhist Approach to Psychology. Shambhala Publications, 2005. Print.

Whalen-Bridge, John. "What Is a ‘Buddhist Film?’." Contemporary Buddhism 15.1 (2014): 44-80. Print.

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Chinese Sources (authors listed according to the strokes of their last names)

宗薩蔣揚欽哲諾布。Khyentse, Dzongsar Jamyang《佛教的見地與修道》新北市:親哲,2011

-,《人間是劇場》新北市:親哲,2010

梁乃崇。Liang, Nai-Chong《心經現代直解》台北市:圓覺,2005

-,Liang, Nai-Chong《金剛經現代直解》台北市:圓覺,2005

賴永海。Lai, Yong-Hai《金剛經.心經》台北市:聯經,2012

指導教授 劉婉俐、易鵬(Wan-li Liu Peng Yi) 審核日期 2015-8-27
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