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姓名 趙昱婷(Yu-Ting zhao)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 Mark Catesby 《自然史》插圖在十八世紀西方博物學圖像中的創新與意義
(Significance of Mark Catesby′s Natural History Illustrations in 18 Century)
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摘要(中) 十八世紀英國博物學家Mark Catesby (1682-1749)所出版的《自然史》是第一本廣泛收集北美洲物種的彩色博物學插圖書籍。其插圖畫面採用無背景動植物組合的形式,與傳統風格大不相同,是博物學插圖上的創新。雖然有零星的博物學畫家受到此風格影響,但是這種創新風格無法被持續的傳承下去。
本論文欲以其插圖風格的建立及傳承情形,來探究此創新風格出現所代表的意義。第一章將研究Catesby 與其贊主的互動及參考的圖像,藉以瞭解其插圖風格的影響來源。第二章依出版順序比對《自然史》的水彩原稿與版畫,以顯現這種創新風格建立的過程。第三章彙整當時人對《自然史》的評價與對其風格的改作,以釐清《自然史》及其插圖的創新風格受到忽視之緣由。經以上研究可發現同時身為園藝家的Catesby 重視植物研究,並以植物為觀察生物關聯的出發點。此不同於傳統的博物學家觀點與Catesby 在畫技上的取捨,造就了無背景動植物組合的風格。這個創新風格反映了領先於十八世紀的自然觀,更呈現動植物搭配的美感,其價值直到二十世紀才又在西方受到廣泛的注意。
摘要(英) The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, the first account of the flora and fauna of North America, was published in 1731 and 1743 by Mark Catesby (1682-1749), who was an eighteenth-century British naturalist. The combination of flora and fauna without background in Natural History illustrations was an innovation in comparison to the traditional style. But this innovation did not become the mainstream in natural history illustrations and was soon forgotten.
This thesis attempts to explore how Catesby’s innovative style could be established, and the significance of the emergence of this innovation. In the first chapter, I examine the interaction between Catesby and his sponsors and the images he may have consulted, so as to understand the possible influences on his style. In chapter two, I compare the watercolors and etchings of Natural History illustrations to show the process of the establishment of this innovative style. In the third chapter, I explore the contemporary comments on Natural History and adaptations of this style to clarify why the innovation was neglected. According to these studies, we can find that Catesby, who was also a gardener, observed birds and other creatures through their relationship to trees and plants, and this was different from the traditional viewpoint of natural history illustrators. The style of Natural History illustrations, which originated in Catesby’s natural outlook, conveyed a specific aesthetic and insight into the relationship between flora and fauna. It was not until the twentieth century that this innovation began to receive attention in the West.
關鍵字(中) ★ 十八世紀
★ 博物學
★ 自然史
★ Mark Catesby
★ 英國皇家學會
★ Sir Hans Sloane
★ John James Audubon
★ George Edwards
★ Maria Sibylla Merian
★ William Bartram
★ Georg Dionysius Ehret
★ Pieter de Bevere
★ Peter Collinson
★ 新世界
★ 蝕刻版畫
★ 鳥類學
★ 植物學
★ 英國
★ 北美洲
關鍵字(英) ★ eighteenth-century
★ natural history
★ Mark Catesby
★ Royal Society
★ Sir Hans Sloane
★ John James Audubon
★ George Edwards
★ Maria Sibylla Merian
★ William Bartram
★ Georg Dionysius Ehret
★ Pieter de Bevere
★ Peter Collinson
★ New World
★ etching
★ ornithology
★ botany
★ Great Britain
★ north America
論文目次 目錄
摘要 ............................................................................................................................................ I
Abstract ................................................................................................................................... II
誌謝辭 ..................................................................................................................................... III
導論 ........................................................................................................................................... 1
文獻回顧 ............................................................................................................................... 3
問題意識與研究範圍 ........................................................................................................... 6
章節架構 ............................................................................................................................... 8
第一章 《自然史》的成書脈絡 ........................................................................................ 10
第一節 《自然史》的贊主及成書背景 ....................................................................... 10
第二節 西方博物學圖像發展及Catesby 的參考圖像 ............................................... 17
(一) 《自然史》之前的博物學圖像樣式 ........................................................... 17
(二) 傳統博物學圖像中動植物結合的畫面公式 ............................................... 19
(三) 十八世紀彩色博物學印刷與《自然史》插圖的比較 ............................... 20
(四) 《自然史》插圖的參考和協作 ................................................................... 23
第二章 《自然史》圖像特殊的組合形式 ........................................................................ 27
第一節 放棄描繪空間感發展而成的動植物圖像組合 ............................................... 27
(一) 《自然史》出版初期畫面的形式變動 ....................................................... 27
(二) 《自然史》插圖中的視覺對應 ................................................................... 32
第二節 《自然史》的畫面設計與內容 ....................................................................... 37
(一) 見聞內容 ....................................................................................................... 37
(二) 經濟價值 ....................................................................................................... 39
(三) 生態關聯 ....................................................................................................... 41
第三章 《自然史》插圖的評價及後續影響 ....................................................................... 44
第一節 《自然史》在十八世紀的評價及追隨者 ....................................................... 44
VI
第二節 《自然史》後博物學圖像風格走向 ............................................................... 54
結論 ......................................................................................................................................... 61
參考書目 ................................................................................................................................. 64
附錄一:Mark Catesby 在1722 至1726 年間北美之旅的贊主 ..................................... 68
附錄二:《自然史》的訂閱者 ............................................................................................. 69
附錄三:《自然史》插圖生物學名及溫莎堡水彩原稿編號對照表 ................................. 75
圖版 ......................................................................................................................................... 90
參考文獻 一手文獻 Albin, Eleazar, A Natural History of Birds etc., London, 1731-1738. (下載自:Google Book,2013.6.12 瀏覽。) Catesby, Mark, Hortus Europae Americanus: Collection of 85 Curious Trees and Shrubs, the Produce of North America., London: J. Millan, 1767. (下載自:Botanicus Digital Library,2014.7.10 瀏覽。) Catesby, Mark, The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands. London, 1731-1743. (下載自:Rare Book Room,2013.4.1 瀏覽。) Catesby, Mark, The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands. London, 1754. (下載自:University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center,2013.4.1 瀏覽。) Mortimer, Cromwell, “A Continuation of an Account of an Essay Towards a Natural History of Carolina, and the Bahama Islands; by Mark Catesby, F. R. S. With Some Extracts out of the Appendix,” Philosophical transactions, Royal Society, London, Vol. 45 (1748): 157-173. (參考自:ECCO (18 世紀經典古籍全文資料庫) Darlington, William, Memorials of John Bartram and Humphry Marshall, Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1849. Ehret, Georg D., Plantae Selectae, Augsburg, 1750-1773. (下載自:Botanicus Digital Library,2013.6.20 瀏覽。) Edwards, George, A Natural History of Uncommon Birds, London: the author, 1743-1751. (下載自:Göttingen Digitalisierungs-Zentrum,2013.6.12 瀏覽。) Gesner, Conrad, Historiae animalium, Zurich, 1551-1558. (下載自:日本慶應義塾大學數位化網頁,2013.12.31 瀏覽。) Seligmann, Johann Michael, Sammlung verschiedener ausländischer und seltener Vögel, Nuremberg, 1749-1764. (下載自:Göttingen Digitalisierungs-Zentrum,2013.6.12 瀏覽。) Merian, Maria Sibylla, Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamensium, The Hague: Gosse, 1705. (下載自:Göttingen Digitalisierungs-Zentrum,2013.6.31 瀏覽。) Brown, Peter New illustrations of zoology, London, 1776. (下載自:Göttingen Digitalisierungs-Zentrum,2013.4.25 瀏覽。)
65
Pulteney, Richard, Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, from its Origin to the Introduction of the Linnæan System, London, 1790. Sloane, Hans, A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and Jamaica, London : Printed by B.M. for the author, 1707-1725. (下載自:Botanicus Digital Library,2013.6.20 瀏覽。) Pennant, Thomas, Indian Zoology, London, 1769. (下載自:Göttingen Digitalisierungs-Zentrum,2014.4.20 瀏覽。) 研究著作 中文書目
愛德華‧拉森(Edward J. Larson),《雀鳥.果蠅與上帝: 演化論的歷史》,陳恒安譯。新北市:左岸文化出版,2005。
萊斯(Tony Rice):《發現之旅》,林潔盈譯。臺中市:好讀,2010。
西文書目 Attenborough, David, Amazing rare things: the art of natural history in the age of discovery, London: In association with the Royal Collection, 2009. Dickenson, Victoria, Drawn from Life: Science and Art in the Portrayal of the New World, Buffalo : University of Toronto Press, 1988. Donald, Diana & Munro, Jane (eds.), Endless forms: Charles Darwin, natural science and the visual arts, London: Yale University Press, 2009. Ellenius, Allan. (ed.), The Natural Sciences and the Arts: Aspects of Interaction from the Renaissance to the 20th Century : an International Symposium, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1985. Etheridge, Kay, “Maria Sibylla Merian: The First Ecologist?” in V. Molinari & D. Andreolle, (eds.), Women and Science: Figures and Representations–17th Century to Present, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011, pp. 1-31. Ewan, Joseph (ed.), William Bartram : Botanical and Zoological Drawings, 1756-1788., Philadelph: American Philosophical Society, 1968. Farber, Paul Lawrence, Discovering Birds: The Emergence of Ornithology as a Scientific Discipline, 1760-1850, London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. Frick, George Frederick & Stearns, Raymond Phineas, Mark Catesby: The Colonial Audubon, Literary Licensing, 1961.
66
Givens, Jean Ann & Reeds, Karen (eds.), Visualizing Medieval Medicine and Natural History, 1200-1550., London: Ashgate Publishing, 2006. Hoeniger, F. D. & Hoeniger, J. F. M., The Development of Natural History in Tudor England, University Press of Virginia, 1979. Hoeniger, F. D. & Hoeniger, J. F. M., The Growth of Natural History in Stuart England from Gerard to the Royal Society, University Press of Virginia, 1979. McBurney, Henrietta, Mark Catesby′s Natural History of America: The Watercolors from the Royal Library Windsor Castle, Merrell Publishers, 1999. Meyers, Amy R. W. & Pritchard (eds.), Margaret Beck, Empire’s Nature: Mark Catesby’s New World Vision, Chapel Hill: the University of North Carolina Press, 1998. Meyers, Amy R. W., & Ford, Lisa L. (eds.), Knowing Nature: Art and Science in Philadelphia, 1740-1840. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011. O’Malley, Therese & Meyers, Amy R. W. (eds.), The Art of Natural History: Illustrated Treatises and Botanical Paintings, 1400-1850, National Gallery of Art, 2010. Parry, Linda, British Textiles: 1700 to the Present, London: V & A Pub., 2010. Raat, Alexander J. P., The Life of Governor Joan Gideon Loten (1710-1789): A Personal History of a Dutch Virtuoso, Uitgeverij Verloren, 2010.
Saunders, Gill, Picturing Plants: An Analytical History of Botanical Illustrations, University of California Press, 1995. Smith, James Edward, A Selection of the Correspondence of Linnaeus, and Other Naturalists, London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1821. 期刊文章
Allen, Elsa G., “New Light on Mark Catesby,” The Auk, Vol. 54, No. 3 (1937): 349-363.
Irmscher, Christoph, “Violence and Artistic Representation in John James Audubon,” Raritan, Vol. 15, Issue 2 (1995: Fall): 1- 34.
Partridge, Linda Dugan, “By the Book: Audubon and the Tradition of Ornithological Illustration,” Huntington Library Quarterly, Vol. 59, No. 2 (1996): 269-301.
Reveal, James L. “Identification of the Plants and Animals Illustrated by Mark Catesby for His Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands,” Phytoneuron, 2013-6 (2013): 1–55.
Wilson, David, “The Iconography of Mark Catesby,” Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2 (1970-1971): 169-183.
學位論文
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Meyers, Amy R. W., Sketches from the Wilderness: Changing Conceptions of Nature in American Natural History Illustration, 1680-1880 (Thesis (Ph.D.) Yale University, 1985) 網路資源
Botanicus Digital Library (植物學數位圖書館): http://www.botanicus.org/browse/year
Biodiversity Heritage Library (生物多樣性文獻圖書館):http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
Google Book (谷哥圖書): http://books.google.com/
Göttingen Digitalisierungs-Zentrum (哥廷根數位中心): http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gdz/
Rare Book Room (善本書資料庫): http://www.rarebookroom.org/
University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center (威斯康辛大學數位典藏): http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/DLDecArts/Browse.html
日本慶應義塾大學數位化網頁:http://www.humi.mita.keio.ac.jp/treasures/nature/Gesner-web/contents_b.html
Oxford University Herbaria, The Collections of Mark Catesby in Oxford (牛津大學植物標本館,Mark Catesby的收藏): <http://herbaria.plants.ox.ac.uk/bol/catesby>
指導教授 謝佳娟(Chia-Chuan Hsieh) 審核日期 2014-7-21
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