博碩士論文 100127003 詳細資訊




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姓名 林映苓(Ing-Ling Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 學習與教學研究所
論文名稱 電腦模擬輔助學習中「人機互動」對認知負荷、學習歷程與學習成效的影響
(Effects of interactivity on cognitive load, learning process, and learning performance within a simulation based learning environment)
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摘要(中) 在電腦模擬輔助學習環境中,透過操作來互動是不可或缺的要素。在互動的過程裡,學習者可藉由觀察模擬的變化而了解學習概念,又或從多重表徵之間獲得概念的連結。雖然文獻普遍認為互動能夠讓學習者主動學習,進而有機會主動建構或產生更深刻的理解。然而,過去有關互動的實證研究結果混合而不一致,更多研究者認為互動背後的認知扮演重要的角色。儘管如此,過去實證研究探討的互動往往跨越不同的學習介面(圖片、動畫),或跨越不同互動類別(回饋、操作、點擊),不同互動方式本身所隱含的背後認知可能早已混合在研究結果之中。因此,互動一定是有效的學習嗎?或許應該以更一致的立基點來加以比較。是以,本研究欲探討在電腦模擬環境中,「有無互動」(行為層面)和「互動程度」(認知層面)對學習產生的影響,並從認知負荷的觀點加以檢視,認為當給予學習者愈大的互動程度(提升有效主動思考的可能性),則愈能使學習者涉入於學習活動當中,產生增生負荷並獲得更佳的學習成效。本研究採用單因子實驗設計,以台灣北部88名高一學生作為受試者,將學習者隨機分派至「無互動」、「低互動」與「高互動」的教材版本,並於學習後給予認知負荷量表及學習測驗(表徵測驗與理解測驗)。分析結果發現:(1)在「有無互動」的比較中,有互動在學習階段所花的時間有高於無互動的趨勢,有互動在理解測驗的時間則有低於無互動的趨勢,不過在認知負荷與學習成效方面,則無統計顯著差異。(2)在「互動程度」的比較中,低互動在學習階段的認知負荷顯著低於高互動,教學效能亦顯著高於高互動,不過在學習成效、測驗階段認知負荷、學習時間方面則未達統計顯著差異。是以,本研究將依據各項研究結果提出討論與建議,期許可作為未來在電腦模擬環境中互動學習之參考。
摘要(英) Simulation based learning environment is a typical interactive learning environment. When learning with simulation, students learn concepts by observing changes, or receiving immediate feedback among multiple representations (e.g., the arrangement of data points) when they change the variable value (e.g., r value). Although it is a general viewpoint that the interactive processes have the potential benefits for learning, there is no consistent result showing its effectiveness across the past studies. Cognitive process behind the results is considered to be a possible reason for the uncertainty of the effectiveness of the interactivity under the simulation based learning environment. Nevertheless, previous empirical research had acrossed different interface (e.g., picture, animation), and different types of interactive behaviors (e.g., feedback, manipulation, & click), which might refer to mix different cognitive processes in the results Therefore, is interactivity effective for student’s learning? Maybe we should base on more consistent standpoint to make the comparation and answer this question. In this study, the researcher wants to examine which one is more important for learning between “interactivity and non-interactivity” (behavior) and “degree of interactivity” (cognition)? From the perspective of Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), the increase of interactivity might be a way to enhance germane cognitive load, which induces learners to directly invest their cognitive efforts on the most essential elements of the leaning material, and thus promotes more opportunities for getting learners involved into active genuine learning process. Therefore, it is expected that learners will produce more cognitive load but better learning performance with the increasing interactivity. In this study, single between-subject experimental design was conducted to explore this issue. The subjects were randomly assigned to “non-interactivity’’, “low-interactivity’’, and “high- interactivity” conditions. Besides, concepts about Correlation were used as the learning topic. In the results, the researcher found that for the “interactivity and non- interactivity” conditions, interactivity group had a tendency to spend more time on learning, but to spend less time on comprehension test. For the “degree of interactivity” conditions, low-interactivity group had higher cognitive load on learning process, and higher learning efficiency than high-interactivity group. Finally, the implications of the research findings and the design of simulation learning environments are discussed.
關鍵字(中) ★ 電腦模擬
★ 認知負荷
★ 互動
★ 互動程度
★ 學習歷程
★ 學習成效
關鍵字(英) ★ simulation based computer-assisted learning
★ Cognitive Load Theory
★ interactivity
★ degree of interactivity
★ learning process
★ learning performance
論文目次 目次
摘要................................................................................................................................ 2
目次................................................................................................................................. i
圖目次............................................................................................................................ ii
表目次.......................................................................................................................... iii
一、緒 論...................................................................................................................... 1
1-1 研究背景與動機 ............................................................................................ 1
1-2 研究目的與待答問題 .................................................................................... 4
1-3 名詞釋義 ........................................................................................................ 4
二、 文獻探討........................................................................................................ 7
2-1 電腦模擬輔助學習及相關文獻探討 ............................................................. 7
2-2 互動式學習環境及其成效 ........................................................................... 11
2-3 認知負荷理論及相關文獻探討 ................................................................... 21
2-4 研究假設 ....................................................................................................... 27
三、研究方法與設計.................................................................................................. 30
3-1 研究架構 ....................................................................................................... 30
3-2 研究對象 ....................................................................................................... 30
3-3 研究設計 ....................................................................................................... 31
3-4 研究教材 ....................................................................................................... 32
3-5 研究步驟 ....................................................................................................... 38
3-6 資料分析 ....................................................................................................... 42
四、資料分析結果...................................................................................................... 46
4-1「有無互動」之事前比較結果分析 ............................................................ 46
4-2「互動程度」之事前比較結果分析 ............................................................ 47
五、討 論.................................................................................................................... 53
5-1「有無互動」對學習者的認知負荷、學習歷程與學習成效之影響 ........ 53
5-2「互動程度」對學習者的認知負荷、學習歷程與學習成效之影響 ........ 55
六、結論與建議.......................................................................................................... 60
6-1 研究結論 ....................................................................................................... 60
6-2 研究限制與建議 ........................................................................................... 63
6-3 未來建議 ....................................................................................................... 64
參考文獻...................................................................................................................... 66
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指導教授 劉子鍵(Tzu-Chien Liu) 審核日期 2013-8-29
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