博碩士論文 100287601 詳細資訊




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姓名 馬英傑(Indra Tri Mahayana)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱
(Investigation of posterior parietal cortex visuospatial control over processing in near and far space using transcranial magnetic stimulation)
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摘要(中) 人類大腦使用視覺空間注意力的能力來確認環境中視覺項目的位置。正常大腦的生理特性可以解釋各種行為現象,包含:個人空間、在有害的視覺刺激接近時的退避反應、或是迴避障礙。視覺空間辨識障礙的病人,普遍是頂葉受到損傷所造成的,病人通常會無法辨識和探索出現在對側空間的視覺刺激,此現象稱為視覺空間忽略症。探討頂葉皮質是如何調控視覺空間注意力,有助於了解正常大腦功能的理論基礎。因此,我們使用跨顱磁刺激儀(TMS)比較受試者的神經活動在有無受到干擾狀況下的行為表現,來探討大腦與行為之間的關聯性。本論文主要想探討視覺空間注意力在遠近距離的控制中,頂葉皮質所扮演的角色。遠近距離的辨識是由不同的視覺注意力神經機制所負責,因此也是一個重要的研究議題。
摘要(英) The fundamental ability of the human brain to locate visual items in the environment depends on visuospatial attention. Normal physiological properties of the brain explain a range of behavioral phenomena including the personal space of humans, the withdrawal reaction to approaching harmful visual stimuli, or avoidance of obstacles. A patient with visuospatial deficits, commonly as a result of parietal damage, experiences failure to acknowledge or explore stimuli toward the contralesional side of space, a phenomenon called visuospatial neglect. Research and investigation of how the parietal cortex controls visuospatial attention may contribute to the theoretical basis of healthy brain function. Hence, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) we can investigate the relationship between brain and behavior under controlled experimental conditions when comparing behavioral performance with and without local neural activity disruption. This thesis investigated parietal cortex function in visuospatial attention control in near and far space, coding of which is comprised of different neural mechanisms of visual attention and which will be important to investigate further.
關鍵字(中) ★ 視覺空間注意力
★ 跨顱磁刺激儀
★ 頂葉皮質
★ 遠近空間
★ 視覺空間忽略症
關鍵字(英) ★ visuospatial attention
★ transcranial magnetic stimulation
★ posterior parietal cortex
★ far space
★ near space
★ visuospatial neglect
論文目次 Inside Cover ............................................................................................................................ i
Advisor’s recommendation letter ......................................................................................... iii
Verification letter .................................................................................................................. iv
Chinese Abstract .................................................................................................................... v
English Abstract ................................................................................................................... vi
Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................... vii
Table of Contents ................................................................................................................. ix
Table of Figures .................................................................................................................. xiv
List of Tables ...................................................................................................................... xvi
Chapter 1: General Introduction .......................................................................................... 1
1. 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1
1. 2. The spatial perception of space: near and far space concepts and the role of posterior parietal cortex .................................................................................................. 4
1. 3. The anatomy of parietal cortex............................................................................. 12
1. 3. 1. Inferior parietal lobule (IPL) ............................................................. 17
1. 3. 2. Intraparietal sulcus (IPS) ................................................................... 21
1. 4. The application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in cognitive neuroscience ................................................................................................................. 27
1. 5. The purpose & hypothesis of this thesis............................................................... 34
Chapter 2: Dissociating the role of posterior parietal cortex in near and far visuospatial control, investigated by peripheral target visual search tasks ............................................. 39
2. 1. Background .......................................................................................................... 39
2. 1. 1. The presumptive role of posterior parietal cortex in far space. ................ 42
2. 1. 2. Hypothesis ................................................................................................ 46
x
2.2. Methods .................................................................................................................. 47
2. 2. 1. Experiment 1: Investigation of the role of rPPC in far space .................... 47
2. 2. 1. 1. Participants ..................................................................................... 47
2. 2. 1. 2. Apparatus ....................................................................................... 47
2. 2. 1. 3. Stimuli and Design ......................................................................... 48
2. 2. 1. 3. 1. Experiment 1.1 (Formal experiment) .................................. 48
2. 2. 1. 3. 2. Experiment 1.2 (Control experiment) ................................. 51
2. 2. 1. 3. Procedure ........................................................................................ 52
2. 2. 1. 3. 1. Experiment 1 ....................................................................... 52
2. 1. 3. Eye monitoring 2. 1. 3. Eye monitoring2. 2. 1. 3. Eye monitoring2. 2. 1. 3. Eye monitoring 2. 1. 3. Eye monitoring ................................ ........................ 55
2. 2. 1. 3. 2. Experiment 1.2 .................................................................... 55
2. 2. 1. 4. rTMS Procedure and Site localization ........................................... 56
2. 2. 1. 4. 1. rTMS Procedure .................................................................. 56
2. 2. 1. 4. 2. Site localization ................................................................... 57
2. 2. 1. 4. 3. Experiment 1.2 .................................................................... 59
2. 2. 1. 5. Data Analysis ................................................................................. 59
2. 2. 2. Experiment 2 (Follow up experiment): the investigation of rPPC effect in near space using low spatial probability peripheral search array. ......................... 61
2. 2. 2. 1. Participants ..................................................................................... 61
2. 2. 2. 3. Stimuli and design .......................................................................... 62
2. 2. 2. 4. Procedure ........................................................................................ 64
2. 2. 2. 5. rTMS Procedure and Site localization ........................................... 65
2. 2. 2. 6. Data Analysis ................................................................................. 66
2.3. Results .................................................................................................................... 68
2. 3. 1. Experiment 1.1........................................................................................... 68
2. 3. 1. 1. Experiment 1.1: Hemifield analysis ............................................... 70
xi
2. 3. 2. Experiment 1.2 .......................................................................................... 74
2. 3. 3. Experiment 2 (Follow up experiment): rPPC and low spatial probability search array ........................................................................................................... 76
2. 3. 3. 1. Overall analysis ............................................................................. 76
2. 3. 3. 2. Hemifield analysis ......................................................................... 78
2. 3. 3. 3. Search arrays analysis .................................................................... 78
2. 4. Discussion ............................................................................................................ 81
2. 4. 1. The PPC role in far space ......................................................................... 81
2. 4. 2. rPPC effect in near space using low spatial probability visual search task ........................................................................................................................ 88
2. 5. Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 90
Chapter 3: Investigation of the involvement of posterior medial parietal cortex (the precuneus) in near and far visuospatial control using the landmark task. ........................... 93
3. 1. Background .......................................................................................................... 93
3. 1. 1. Anatomy of precuneus .............................................................................. 24
3. 1. 2. The landmark task for the investigation of visuospatial attention ............ 94
3. 1. 3. Presumptive role of precuneus in visuospatial attention........................... 96
3. 1. 4. Hypothesis ................................................................................................ 98
3. 2. Materials and Methods ......................................................................................... 99
3. 2. 1. Participants ................................................................................................ 99
3. 2. 2. Apparatus .................................................................................................. 99
3. 2. 3. Stimuli and Design .................................................................................. 100
3. 2. 4. Procedure ................................................................................................ 101
3. 2. 5. rTMS Procedure and Site localization .................................................... 104
3. 2. 5. 1. rTMS Procedure .......................................................................... 104
3. 2. 5. 2. Site localization ........................................................................... 104
xii
3. 2. 6. Data Analyses .......................................................................................... 107
3. 2. 6. 1. Accuracy analyses ........................................................................ 107
3. 2. 6. 2. Reaction time (RT) analyses ........................................................ 108
3. 3. Results ................................................................................................................. 109
3. 3. 1. Accuracy analyses ................................................................................... 109
3. 3. 2. Reaction time (RT) analyses .................................................................... 113
3. 4. Discussion ........................................................................................................... 114
3. 5. Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 118
Chapter 4: The application of the near and far space concepts in attributing sensory information in observers. .................................................................................................... 119
4. 1. Background ......................................................................................................... 119
4. 1. 1. Neural basis of ‘parieto-dependent’ areas for mirror mechanisms ......... 122
4. 1. 2. Application of the concept of embodiment and empathy in cognitive neuroscience. ....................................................................................................... 126
4. 1. 3. Hypothesis ............................................................................................... 129
4. 2. Methods ............................................................................................................... 130
4. 2. 1. Participants .............................................................................................. 130
4. 2. 2. Apparatus ................................................................................................. 130
4. 2. 3. Procedures ............................................................................................... 132
4. 2. 3. 1. Follow up experiment (Control experiment) ................................ 133
4. 2. 4. Data analysis ............................................................................................ 135
4. 2. 4. 1. Subjective measures analysis ....................................................... 135
4. 2. 4. 2. The MEPs analysis ....................................................................... 136
4. 2. 4. 2. 1. Correlation analysis of subjective measurements and MEPs amplitude change .................................................................................. 136
4. 2. 4. 2. 2. MEPs amplitudes in near and far space ............................ 136
xiii
4. 3. Results ................................................................................................................ 137
4. 3. 1. The correlation of subjective measurements and MEPs amplitude change ................................................................................................................. 137
4. 3. 2. MEPs amplitudes .................................................................................... 139
4. 3. 2. Follow up experiment ............................................................................. 142
4. 4. Discussion .......................................................................................................... 144
4. 5. Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 146
Chapter 5: General Discussion ........................................................................................ 149
5. 1. Results summary ................................................................................................ 149
5. 2. Overall summary ................................................................................................ 154
Chapter 6: Conclusion, study limitations & future directions ......................................... 157
6. 1. Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 157
6. 2. Study limitations ................................................................................................ 158
6. 3. Future directions ................................................................................................. 160
6. 3. 1. Future directions for near and far space experiments ............................. 160
6. 3. 2. Combination of neuroimaging and neurodisruption techniques. ............ 161
6. 3. 3. The potential of TMS application in clinical settings ............................. 166
6. 3. 4. The application of TMS in cognitive neuroscience research and neurocognitive treatment in Indonesia ................................................................ 172
References ......................................................................................................................... 177
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指導教授 阮啟弘(Chi-Hung Juan) 審核日期 2014-6-25
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