博碩士論文 100350601 詳細資訊




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姓名 露西雅(Gabriela Lucia Letona Molina)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 Identifying optimal places for harvesting rain water using an Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP): a case study in north eastern Guatemala
(應用層級分析法獲取雨水-逕流回收系統之最佳站位-以瓜地馬拉東北地區為例)
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摘要(中) 水資源的重要性對於農業生產力以至於糧食安全舉足輕重。在乾燥、半乾燥地區因氣候條件嚴苛,容易面臨水資源短缺,進而造成作物產量減少,導致嚴重糧食缺乏危機。針對此問題,目前許多補救措施如雨水-逕流回收系統(harvesting rainwater-runoff, HRW)等方法,被利用在改善此嚴苛水資源條件。此系統之概念在於藉由儲蓄溼季多餘水資源並應用於乾季之灌溉水源,以增加可利用之水資源。在乾燥、半乾燥等水資源缺乏地區,可用水回收系統此概念已經有數千年歷史。然而,為了達到更高的回收系統使用效率,系統選址與事前評估相當重要且評估項目涉及廣泛,自然條件與社會經濟特性都包括在此,以期更高的水資源運用效率。
水資源的重要性對於農業生產力以至於糧食安全舉足輕重。在乾燥、半乾燥地區因氣候條件嚴苛,容易面臨水資源短缺,進而造成作物產量減少,導致嚴重糧食缺乏危機。針對此問題,目前許多補救措施如雨水-逕流回收系統(harvesting rainwater-runoff, HRW)等方法,被利用在改善此嚴苛水資源條件。此系統之概念在於藉由儲蓄溼季多餘水資源並應用於乾季之灌溉水源,以增加可利用之水資源。在乾燥、半乾燥等水資源缺乏地區,可用水回收系統此概念已經有數千年歷史。然而,為了達到更高的回收系統使用效率,系統選址與事前評估相當重要且評估項目涉及廣泛,自然條件與社會經濟特性都包括在此,以期更高的水資源運用效率。
本研究選用層級分析法(Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP)以獲得系統設立之最佳位置,並使用地理資訊系統(Geographic information Systems, GIS)呈現資料之空間分布情形。層級分析法(AHP)應用範圍相當廣泛,特別是需要建立不同性質因子之間的權重關係,以達到比較之目的。本研究中選定因子包括逕流產生潛勢(potential runoff)、坡度(slope)、土地利用(land use)、土壤質地(soil texture)、距離農地之距離(distance from agricultural lands) 與距離道路之距離(distance from roads)。
其中逕流產生潛勢(potential runoff)是由美國農業部(United States Department of Agriculture, USDA)所發展之公式CN值法 (Soil Conservation Service Runoff Curve Number Method, SCS CN Method)求得。此法對於逕流產生機制著重於土地利用型態,且所需參數相對較少,特別適合應用於無歷史資料之地區。
研究區域為瓜地馬拉(Guatemala)東北部地區,氣候型態乾燥缺水。而本研究也嘗試改變各參數在AHP中之權重;以及改變AHP之模式架構以試探本模式參數與結構之敏感度。
摘要(英) Water availability in agriculture sector is an important element in the productivity of a nation, also to maintain food security. Arid and semiarid regions are the common areas that are constantly affecting by water scarcity and soil moisture deficit problems. Those problems affect the crop production and increasing food risk. There are initiatives to address that kind of problems through supplementary systems, called harvesting rainwater-runoff (HRW). Water harvesting has been used for thousands of years in order to increase water availability in semiarid and arid areas. Collected water can be stored or can be used as irrigation water during dry periods or during the wet periods, which contain short dry periods. However, implementation of these systems, should need a location planning for select optimal places for harvesting rainwater, in this manner, it is a strategy for obtain a better performance. Which is why it is important to consider some criteria, which affect the effectiveness of these systems. Factors such as physical and socio-economic characteristics of the target area should be included in the analysis of HRW. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to determinate optimal places using Geographic information Systems (GIS) in order to integrate spatial information. This method proved to be very useful when there is a need to relate different factors. Criteria such as potential runoff, slope, land use, soil texture, distance from agricultural lands, and distance from roads are taking in consideration in this research. For potential runoff a theoretical method was applied in order to determinate the potential of runoff. This method is called SCS-Curve number, and is a very straightforward method. Also, this method proved to be a good estimator of runoff where is not historical data and where is needed to estimate the cubic meters of runoff that the system can collect. This method was applied to Guatemala’s north eastern region, a place characterized by its semiarid condition and soil moisture deficit. In this research, different values of importance were also changed with respect to some criteria using in AHP method, and was tested with different of AHP structure, in order to show the flexibility of this model.
關鍵字(中) ★ 降雨逕流
★ 層級分析法
★ SCS CN 值法
★ 地理資訊系統
★ 雨水回收
關鍵字(英) ★ Rainfall-Runoff
★ Analytical hierarchy process
★ SCS Curve number
★ GIS
★ Harvesting Rainwater
論文目次 List of Contents
Abstract ii
Chinese abstract iii
Acknowledgment v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures x
Abbreviation and Symbols xii
1. Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
1.3 Justification of study 5
1.4 State of the art 5
1.5 The importance of the study 5
1.6 Main Objective 6
1.7 Specific Objectives 6
2. Chapter 2: Literature review 7
2.1 Harvesting water 7
2.2 Calculation of runoff 9
2.3 Calculation runoff with GIS 10
2.4 Multiple criteria Decision Making (MCDM) 10
2.5 Analytical Hierarchy Process 12
2.6 Error Matrix 16
2.7 Advantages of analyze potential RWH 18
3. Chapter 3: Study area 20
3.1 General information 20
3.2 Characteristics of the study area 22
4. Chapter4: Methodology 27
4.1 Principal elements of the model 27
4.1.2 Selection of criteria 28
4.1.3 Analytical Hierarchy process for harvesting rain water 31
4.1.4 Estimation of cubic meters of water 32
4.1.5 Sensitivity Analysis 35
4.2 Classification of criteria 35
4.2.1 Slope “A” 35
4.2.2 Land use/cover 36
4.2.3 Soil texture 38
4.2.4 Distance from agricultural lands 39
4.2.5 Distance from roads 42
4.2.6 Potential Runoff 44
4.3 Analytical Hierarchy, structures 51
4.3.1 Relative Weights 55
4.3.2 Case I 55
4.4 Sensitivity Analysis 60
4.4.1 Case II 60
4.4.2 Case III 61
4.5 Error Matrix 61
4.6 Estimation of cubic meters of water 62
5. Chapter 5: Results and Discussion 64
5.1 AHP results 64
5.1.1 Case I 64
5.1.2 Case II 71
5.1.3 Case III 77
5.2 Overlay Case I, Case II, and Case III 84
5.3 Amount of runoff 86
5.4 Discussion 95
5.4.1 Structure #1 96
5.4.2 Structure #2 96
5.4.3 Resume of Structure #1 and Structure #2 97
6. Chapter 6: Conclusions 99
6.1 Conclusions 99
6.2 Recommendations 101
6.3 Limitations 101
References 102
Appendix 105
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指導教授 吳瑞賢、陳繼藩
(Ray-Shyan Wu、Chi-Farn Chen)
審核日期 2013-7-8
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