博碩士論文 100350605 詳細資訊




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姓名 蘇高力(Kolley Suwai)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 甘比亞沿海地帶離岸石油探勘與生產對環境及社會經濟的潛在影響
(The Potential Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts of Offshore Petroleum Exploration and Production on The Coastal Zone of The Gambia)
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摘要(中) 由於對能源的需求持續增長,找到新的石油(油和天然氣)來源並加以生產是必須的。對於一個國家而言,天然資源的發現與開採可以視為經濟成長的契機;但若沒有良好且可持續發展的政策與方法來執行,也可能成為一種資源詛咒(Resource Curse)。
這項研究的主要目的是分析甘比亞沿海地區離岸石油和天然氣的勘探與生產對環境和社會經濟的潛在影響,並提出緩解措施以控制這些對未來的不利影響。
對於甘比亞而言,資源如果管理得當,不僅可以促進經濟持續發展,創造就業機會,還能供應甘比亞的能源所需。勘探及開採天然資源總是伴隨著各種挑戰,如各個國家不同的環境法律和法規、經濟社會問題,以及投資者的回饋不確定等。對石油產業最大的挑戰–尤其是離岸的石油探勘及生產,是對於環境的負面影響,亦即開採或生產時對於不同的海洋使用者、海洋生物以及沿海居民經濟和社會活動的不利影響。有鑑於石油產業可能對國家的環境產生毀滅性影響,必須要有一個嚴謹且完善的政策來有效地管理和監控。
甘比亞新興的石油產業,自然地也面臨經濟發展、基礎建設與環境議題的挑戰。從受訪者的角度而言,該國主要關注的是石油產業對環境和社會經濟的影響,因為他們沒有良好的經驗來因應石油開採所產生的環境問題。本研究清楚地闡明有關石油探勘,與永續發展的三大支柱(環境、社會及經濟)的效益與成本。
本論文根據受訪者的觀點和過去的文獻回顧為基礎,探討甘比亞沿海地帶的石油勘探和生產對環境和社會經濟的潛在影響。這項研究將檢視經驗豐富的石油產業國家是如何落實其所建立的框架去應付所面臨到的挑戰。藉由評估這個架構的有效性,評斷甘比亞是否準備好去應付環境問題,並確保國家的永續發展。這項研究的結果發現,甘比亞近海,尤其是沿海區域的石油勘探和生產將對推動環境和經濟社會的永續發展,將產生正面的淨影響。
摘要(英) As demand for energy continues to grow, new sources of petroleum (oil and gas) must be found and produced. Natural resource discovery in a country can be the beginning of that country’s economic growth but could also be a resource curse if best sustainable policies and practices are not implemented.
The main objective of this research is to analyze the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production on the coastal zone of The Gambia and to propose mitigative measures for managing the associated environmental and socio-economic impact to avoid future consequences.
Resources if well managed could promote sustainable economic development, employment creation, and a supply for energy for The Gambia. The exploitation and exploration of natural resources are always accompanied with various challenges such as evolving environmental laws and regulations that vary among nations, socio-economic concerns, and providing adequate returns to investors. A major challenge in the petroleum industry, particularly offshore petroleum exploration and production (EP) is it negative impact on the environment, various users of the sea, marine creatures, economics and social activities,and coastal dwellers. The effect of the petroleum industry on the environment can be so disastrous to the nation, that it requires a well designed policy to be initiated in order to effectively manage, control and monitor the adverse impact of the industry on the environment.
The Gambia’s emerging petroleum industry naturally would be followed by economic and infrastructural development and environmental challenges. From the respondents point of view, environmental and socio-economic impacts are a major national concern since the country is not well experienced in managing environmental problems caused by the exploitation for petroleum. Benefits and cost related to the three pillars of sustainability (environment, society, and economic) in Petroleum Exploration and Production are clearly spelt out in this research.
This thesis explores the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of Petroleum Exploration and Production on the coastal zone of The Gambia based on respondents point of view and literature review. The research examine the frameworks put in place by experienced nations in the petroleum industry to manage the environmental challenges they faced . It will assess the effectiveness of the structures in determining whether Gambia is prepared to manage the environmental challenges to ensure sustainable development. The findings of this research indicates that the impacts of offshore Petroleum Exploration and Production will have net positive effect and promote sustainable environmental and socio-economic development of The Gambia, coastal zone in particularly.
關鍵字(中) ★ 沿海區
★ 環境
★ 石油勘探和生產
★ 社會經濟學
★ 社會科學統計體(SPSS)
關鍵字(英) ★ Coastal Zone
★ environment
★ Petroleum Exploration and Production
★ Socio-economics
★ Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)
論文目次 Table of Contents
Abstract ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ i
中文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iii
Acknowledgement --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iv
Table of Contents ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- v
Abbreviations -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vii
List of Tables -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- viii
List of Figures -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ix
Chapter 1. Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
1.1 Background of The Study --------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1.1 Country profile - The Gambia ---------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1.2 Exploration History of The Gambia --------------------------------------------- 2
1.1.3 Petroleum Legislation -------------------------------------------------------------- 5
1.1.4 Energy Status In The Gambia ----------------------------------------------------- 6
1.1.5 Geological investigation in The Gambia ---------------------------------------- 8
1.2 Literature review -------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.2.1 Offshore oil development in the region -----------------------------------------10
1.3 Research Objective ----------------------------------------------------------------12
1.4 Justification of the study ----------------------------------------------------------12
1.5 Research Hypothesis --------------------------------------------------------------12
1.6 Methodology -----------------------------------------------------------------------13
1.7 Study Area --------------------------------------------------------------------------14
1.7.1 Description of The Coastal Zone of The Gambia -----------------------------15
Chapter 2. Literature Review ---------------------------------------------------------------- 24
2.1 Sustainable Development Concept ----------------------------------------------24
2.2 Oil spillage and it effect on the marine environment -------------------------24
2.3 Potential impacts of Petroleum exploration and production (Global view)25
2.3.1 Benefits of petroleum E&P in Nigeria ------------------------------------------26
2.3.2 Externalities related to Petroleum Exploration and Production, Nigeria --30
2.3.3 Benefits of Petroleum Exploration and Production in Angola --------------33
2.3.4 Positive effects of Ghana’s oil discovery---------------------------------------35
Chapter 3. Methodology ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 42
3.1 Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.2 Sampling Frame and Sampling Procedure -------------------------------------42
3.3 Sampling Method and Targeted Group -----------------------------------------43
3.4 Techniques of Data Analysis -----------------------------------------------------44
3.5 Research Techniques --------------------------------------------------------------46
3.6 Sample size -------------------------------------------------------------------------47
3.7 Sample Background ---------------------------------------------------------------47
Chapter 4. Results and Discussions --------------------------------------------------------- 50
4.1 Analysis of the Data ---------------------------------------------------------------50
4.2 Environmental and livelihood impacts of oil exploration and production -50
4.2.1 Impact of petroleum operations on Environment/ livelihood ---------------51
4.2.2 Comments by respondents on Impact of oil operations ----------------------55
4.3 Impact Analysis on selected Environmental issues and Socio-economic activities -----------------------------------------------------------------------------56
4.4 Potential Environmental Impacts Associated with Different Stage Petroleum Operations -------------------------------------------------------------63
4.5 Effective drill waste treatment and disposal method -------------------------70
4.6 Pollutant Level monitoring -------------------------------------------------------71
4.7 Environmental regulations of offshore oil development ---------------------71
Chapter 5. Conclusion and Recommendation -------------------------------------------- 75
5.1 Conclusion --------------------------------------------------------------------------75
5.2 Recommendation and Future Research -----------------------------------------75
References ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 77
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指導教授 梁啟源(Chi-Yuan Liang) 審核日期 2013-7-15
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