博碩士論文 100621014 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:13 、訪客IP:107.21.85.250
姓名 王奕紘( Yi-hung Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 大氣物理研究所
論文名稱 北極震盪(Arctic Oscillation, AO)的波動特性與機制探討
(The formation mechanism of Arctic Oscillation)
相關論文
★ 利用MM5模式評估台灣地區風能蘊藏量之研究★ 1998年亞洲夏季季風區域能量特性分析
★ 全球氣候模式(NCAR CCM2/3)模擬東亞氣候變遷之研究★ MM5對東亞地區梅雨季的模擬及其可預報度之研究
★ 西太平洋副熱帶高壓異常活動之特性分析★ 東亞大氣年際變化之研究與模擬
★ 地表特性對台灣及鄰近地區氣候影響之模擬研究★ 東亞地區降水年際變化之研究
★ 華南春季冷鋒之個案研究★ 北極震盪(Arctic Oscillation, AO)對東亞地區氣候系統影響之研究
★ 氣候變遷對西北太平洋熱帶氣旋的影響★ 以機率密度函數探討台灣及鄰近地區未來氣候變遷特性:IPCC全球海氣耦合模式資料之分析研究
★ 地表特性對台灣地區氣候的影響★ 氣候異變(1979年)前後期夏季西北太平洋副高西伸東退之特性研究
★ 西北太平洋副熱帶高壓西伸東退對西北太平洋熱帶氣旋氣候特性的影響★ 臺北測站之統計降尺度定量降水研究
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 北極震盪(Arctic Oscillation, AO)是近十年來為大家所關心的重要氣候議題之一。所謂的北極震盪,是指北半球中緯度和極區海平面氣壓變化的帶狀結構,呈現南北對稱的特徵,通常在冬季其變化幅度會較明顯;但因作用中心主要在歐、美地區,關於其對東亞地區影響的研究較少。而且AO事件的成因,目前還沒有明確的答案。
本研究使用流函數收支與波活動通量方法,探討AO的波動特性與觸發AO的動力、熱力機制。結果如下:
(1)根據流函數收支分析結果,得到在AO事件影響下,影響大氣環流結構最主要的動力機制為渦度抽拉項,也就是輻合輻散的作用。其中中緯度東太平洋地區(150W~120W, 30N~50N)為本研究使用流函數收支分析後發現的新作用中心,在前人研究中還未被注意到。
(2)分析波活動通量後,發現新作用中心東太平洋地區正好為波動能量最初開始增強的地點;AO的能量訊號最早從此地區激發並傳遞出去,並非如前人研究認為源自北大西洋地區。形成原因為東太平洋的海溫正距平,增強下對流層的輻合作用距平並與上對流層輻散作用距平配合,形成強烈的上升運動;凝結降雨釋放出的潛熱帶至上對流層進而激發出波動能量,在往東傳遞的過程中改變大氣環流結構,因此AO事件的能量訊號主要為熱力強迫作用所造成的響應結果。波動能量提供了適合擾動發展的環境,與局地的天氣系統交互作用後,可使系統強烈發展並激發出更多能量。
摘要(英) Over the past decade, Arctic Oscillation (AO) has been concerned as an important issue of climate variability during the Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter. It refers to the zonally symmetric seesaw between sea level pressure in polar and mid-latitude, and the character is usually clear in winter. However, there are few researches about the impact of AO in Asia due to the active centers of AO are mainly located near America and Europe region. And its formation mechanism is still not clear.
We use stream function budget and wave activity flux method to investigate the wave character and formation mechanism of AO. The results are shown in the following. (1)According to stream function budget analysis result, the major dynamical process in changing general circulation structure is vorticity stretching effect, and we find a new active center at mid-latitude eastern Pacific region (150oW ~ 120oW, 30oN ~ 50oN), which hasn’t been mentioned yet. (2)After analyzing wave activity flux, we noticed that the mid-latitude eastern Pacific is exactly where the wave energy enhanced at first, the energy signal of AO is originated from this region, not come from North Atlantic. The convergence anomaly in lower troposphere is enhanced due to the positive sea surface temperature anomaly on eastern Pacific, and is coordinated with the divergence anomaly in upper troposphere. It induces strong convection, then brings potential heat to upper troposphere to excite wave energy. The general circulation structure changes during the east propagation of wave energy, therefore the energy signal of AO is the response of thermal forcing. The wave energy provides a suitable environment for disturbance development, and interacts with local weather systems, so the weather system could enhance to stimulate more energy.
關鍵字(中) ★ 北極震盪
★ 流函數收支
★ 波活動通量
關鍵字(英) ★ Arctic Oscillation
★ Stream function budget
★ Wave activity flux
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 文獻回顧 1
1-2-1 AO的真實性探討 2
1-2-2 AO的氣候特徵與影響探討 3
1-2-3 AO的形成機制探討 5
1-3 研究動機與目的 6
第二章 資料與方法 7
2-1 資料來源 7
2-2 資料處理方法 7
2-2-1 經驗正交函數分析 8
2-2-2 傅立葉分析 9
2-2-3 波譜法 10
2-3 研究方法 11
2-3-1 流函數收支 11
2-3-2 波活動通量 13
2-4 AO事件選取與資料合成 14
第三章 流函數收支與波活動通量 16
3-1 流函數收支 16
3-1-1 流函數的水平與垂直結構 17
3-1-2 動力作用分析 18
3-1-3 小結 20
3-2 波活動通量 20
3-2-1 冬季氣候平均場 21
3-2-2 AO負相位時期 22
3-2-3 AO正相位時期 23
3-2-4 小結 24
3-3 個案討論 24
3-3-1 個案選取 25
3-3-2 資料處理 25
3-3-3 結果與小結 26
第四章 結論與討論 27
參考文獻 30
附圖 35
參考文獻 Allen, R. J., and C. S. Zender, 2011: Forcing of the Arctic Oscillation by Eurasian Snow Cover. J. Climate, 24, 6528-6539. doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4157.
Ambaum, M. H. P., B. J. Hoskins, and D. B. Stephenson, 2001:Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation? J. Climate, 14, 3495-3507.
Bai, X., J. Wang, Q. Liu, D. Wang, and Y. Liu, 2011:Severe ice conditions in the Bohai Sea, China, and mild ice conditions in the Great Lakes during the 2009/10 winter: links to El Nino and a strong negative Arctic Oscillation. J. Appl. Meteor. Climato., 50, 1922–1935. doi:10.1175/2011JAMC2675.
Baldwin, M. P., D. B. Stephenson, D. W. J. Thompson, T. J. Dunkerton, A. J. Charlton, and A. O’Neill, 2003: Stratospheric memory and skill of extended-range weather forecasts. Science, 301, 636–640.
Black, R. X., 2002:Stratosphere forcing of surface climate in the Arctic Oscillation. J. Climate, 15, 268-277.
Blackmon, M. L., Y. H. Lee, and J. M. Wallace, 1983:Horizontal structure of 500 mb height fluctuations with long, intermediate and short time scale. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 961-979.
Charney, J. G., and J. G. DeVore, 1979:Multiple flow equilibria in the atmosphere and blocking. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1205-1216.
Chen, T.-C., and J.-M. Chen, 1990:On the maintenance of stationary eddies in terms of the streamfunction budget analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 2818-2824.
——, 2002:A North Pacific short-wave train during the extreme phases of ENSO. J. Climate, 15, 2359-2376.
Cohen, J., and M. Barlow, 2005: The NAO, the AO, and global warming: How closely related? J. Climate, 18, 4498-4513.
——, M. Barlow, P. J. Kushner, and K. Saito, 2007: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling and links with Eurasian land surface variability. J. Climate, 20, 5335-5343.
Craig, R. A., 1967: The vorticity budget of the wintertime lower stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 558-568.
De Beurs, K. M., and G. M. Henebry, 2008: Northern Annular Mode Effects on the Land Surface Phenologies of Northern Eurasia. J. Climate, 21, 4257-4279. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2074.
Deser, C., 2000:On the teleconnectivity of the “Arctic Oscillation”. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 779-782.
Dommenget, D., and M. Latif, 2002:A cautionary note on the interpretation of EOFs. J. Climate, 15, 216-225.
Dorman, C. E., R. C. Beardsley, N. A. Dashko, C. A. Friehe, D. Kheilf, K. Cho, R. Limeburner, and S. M. Varlamov, 2004:Winter marine atmosphere conditions over the Japan Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12011, doi:10.1029/2001JC001197.
Egger, J., 1978:Dynamics of blocking highs. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1788-1801.
Gong, D. Y., S. W. Wang, and J. H. Zhu, 2001:East Asian winter monsoon and Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2073-2076.
Gerber, E. P., and G. K. Vallis, 2009:On the zonal structure of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Annular Modes. J. Atm. Sci., 66, 332-352.
Hardiman, S. C., P. J. Kushner, and J. Cohen, 2008: Investigating the ability of general circulation models to capture the effects of Eurasian snow cover on winter climate. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D21123, doi:10.1029/2008JD010623.
Hawkins, H. F., and S. L. Rosenthal, 1965: On the computation of stream functions from the wind field. Mon. Wea. Rev., 93, 245-252.
Holton, J. R., 2004:An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 4th ed. Academic Press, 535 pp.
Hoskins, B. J., and D. J. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcings. J. Atmos Sci., 38, 1179-1196.
Jeong, J. H., and C. H. Ho, 2005:Changes in occurrence of cold surges over East Asia in association with Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14704, doi:10.1029/2005GL023024.
Jhun, J. G., and E. J. Lee, 2004:A new East Asian winter monsoon index and associated characteristics of the winter monsoon. J. Climate, 17, 711-726.
Julian, P. R., and R. M. Chervin, 1978:A study of the Southern Oscillation and Walker Circulation phenomenon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1433-1451.
Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996:The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437-471.
Kang, I. S., and I. M. Held, 1986:Linear and nonlinear diagnostic models of stationary eddies in the upper troposphere during northern summer. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 3047-3057.
Kerr, R. A., 1999:A new force in high-latitude climate. Science., 284, 241-242.
Keshavamurty, R. N., 1982:Response of the atmosphere to sea surface temperature anomalies over the equatorial Pacific and the teleconnections of Southern Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1241-1259.
Li, J. P., and J. Wang, 2003:A modified zonal index and its physical sense. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(12), 1632, doi:10.1029/2003GL017441.
Lorenz, E. N., 1951:Seasonal and irregular variations of the Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure profile. J. Meteor., 8, 52-59.
——, 1956: Empirical orthogonal functions and statistical weather prediction. Sci. Rep. No. 1, Statistical Forecasting Project, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA, 48 pp.
Martinson, D., W. Maslowski, D. W. J. Thompson, and J. M. Wallace, 2000:The El Nino of the Arctic. National Geographic Magazine, 197, 38-41.
Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell, 2006: Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D18101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006323.
Osborn, T. J., 2004:Simulating the winter North Atlantic Oscillation:The roles of internal variability and greenhouse gas forcing. Climate Dyn., 22, 605-623.
Park, T. W., C. H. Ho, and S. Yang, 2011: Relationship between the Arctic Oscillation and Cold Surges over East Asia. J. Climate, 24, 68–83. doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3529
Plumb, R. A., 1985:On the three-dimensional propagation of stationary wave. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 217-229.
Rigor, I. G., J. M. Wallace, R. L. Colony, 2002:Response of sea ice to the Arctic Oscillation. J. Climate, 15, 2648-2663.
Robertson, A. W., 2001:Influence of Ocean-Atmosphere interaction on the Arctic Oscillation in two general circulation model. J. Climate, 14, 3240-3254.
Rogers, J. C., and M. McHugh, 2002:On the separability of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation. Climate. Dynamics, 19, 599-608.
Saito, K., and J. Cohen, 2003: The potential role of snow cover in forcing interannual variability of the major Northern Hemisphere mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1302, doi:10.1029/2002GL016341.
Smith, K. L., P. J. Kushner, and J. Cohen, 2011:The role of linear interference in Northern Annular Mode variability associated with Eurasian snow cover extent. J. Climate, 24, 6185-6202. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00055.
Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998:The Arctic Oscillation signature in wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297-1300.
——, and ——, 2001:Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annual mode. Science, 6, 85-89.
Walker, G. T., and E. W. Bliss, 1932:World Weather V. Mem. Roy. Meor. Soc., 4, 53-83.
Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784–812.
——, and H. H. Hsu, 1983: Ultra-long waves and two-dimensional Rossby waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2211-2219.
——, and D. W. J. Thompson, 2002:The Pacific Center of Action of the Northern Hemisphere Annular mode:Real or Artifact? J. Climate, 15, 1987-1991.
Wettstein, J. J., and L. O. Mearns, 2002:The influence of the North Atlantic-Arctic Oscillation on mean, variance, and extremes of temperature in the Northeastern United States and Canada. J. Climate, 15, 3586-3600.
指導教授 曾仁佑、王作台
(Ren-yow Tzeng、Jough-tai Wang)
審核日期 2014-1-14
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明