博碩士論文 100621601 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:8 、訪客IP:52.204.98.217
姓名 朴春星(Hien Xuan Bui)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 地球系統科學國際研究生博士學位學程
論文名稱 熱帶太平洋對流垂直結構之觀測與模擬特徵
(Observed and Simulated Vertical Structure of Convection in Tropical Pacific Climate)
相關論文
★ 熱帶對流的水氣與能量輸送: 深-淺對流模之比較★ 超級MJO事件之濕靜能收支分析
★ 全球暖化下季風亞洲降水的變化
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摘要(中) 本論文探討對流垂直結構對熱帶氣候之影響,特別注重深對流和淺對流之分配,以及此分配變化如何影響西太平洋和東太平洋間熱帶輻合區(ITCZ)之濕靜能垂直輸送和降水模擬。我們使用氣象觀測再分析資料和CESM氣候模式模擬資料來探討上述變化背後所隱含的物理機制。

本論文主要貢獻有三個:首先,我們檢驗了控制深對流和淺對流垂直濕靜能輸送差異的因素。當最大垂直速度落在高(低)對流層時,如西(東)太平洋ITCZ區,有利於濕靜能輸出(入)。分析顯示,垂直濕靜能輸送的正負號主要由垂直水氣輸送項決定,其值大小對垂直運動的結構非常敏感。第二,我們利用CESM探討了模式空間解析度對對流垂直結構之影響,包含400km,200km,100km和50km四種解析度的敏感度實驗。實驗結果顯示,較高的模式解析度往往產生更多的淺對流,而較粗糙模式解析度傾,往往產生較少淺對流。更多的淺對流可增強降水頻率和強度,以及總降水量。瞭解上述結果對於氣候模式應用極為重要,因為目前氣候模式仍然使用較粗略的空間解析度進行模擬和推估未來氣候。最後,我們比對了13個CMIP5耦合模式深、淺對流的垂直結構特徵,並討論淺對流結構差異對熱帶降水模擬的影響。
摘要(英) This thesis aims to elucidate the impacts of vertical structure of convection on tropical climate. We focus on the partition between deep (top-heavy) and shallow (bottom-heavy) convection and how its change affects the moist static energy (MSE) transport and precipitation over the western and the eastern Pacific ITCZs. Both reanalysis data and model simulation output - using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) - are utilized to explore the mechanisms behind such change.

The thesis provides three main contributions. Firstly, we examined the controlling factors of the column-integrated vertical MSE advection for both deep and shallow convection. The MSE budgets are computed over the western Pacific and the eastern Pacific ITCZs, dominated respectively by a top-heavy and bottom-heavy structure of convection. A top-heavy (bottom-heavy) structure of vertical motion favors an export (import) of MSE and a positive (negative) value of the vertical MSE advection. It was shown that the sign of vertical MSE advection is determined mainly by the vertical moisture transport whose magnitude is very sensitive to the structure of vertical motion. Secondly, we introduced the impacts of model spatial resolutions on the vertical structure of convection in the CESM. Four spatial resolutions, 400 km, 200 km, 100 km and 50 km, are used. Higher resolution tends to produce more partition of shallow convection, while coarser resolution inclines to produce less. More partition of shallow convection tends to enhance precipitation frequency and intensity, as well as the total precipitation amount. This is particularly important in modeling tropical climate and projecting future climate change in which long term model runs are often performed with coarser resolutions. Lastly, we presented the vertical structure of deep and shallow convection in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, that takes into account the impacts of shallow convection depth on precipitation.
關鍵字(中) ★ 對流 關鍵字(英) ★ Tropical Convection
★ Vertical structure of Convection
★ Western and Eastern Pacific
論文目次 Contents
中 文摘 要 ......................................................................................................................... i
Abstract........................................................................................................................... ii
Acknowledgements......................................................................................................... iii
Contents .......................................................................................................................... v
List of Figures................................................................................................................. vi
List of Tables................................................................................................................... ix
Chapter 1 Introduction.................................................................................................... 1
1.1 The goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.1 Tropical convection development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.2 Understanding cumulus parameterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4 Overview of our approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 Outline of the dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Chapter 2 Impacts of Vertical Structure of Convection in Tropical Climate: Moist
Static Energy Framework................................................................................................ 12
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 Data and methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.1 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.2 Moist static energy budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.3 Singular value decomposition analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3 Two modes of tropical convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3.1 Vertical motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3.2 Column-integrated vertical MSE advection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4 Controlling factors for vertical MSE advection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.1 Impacts of large-scale environment (thermodynamic effect) . . . . . 23
2.4.2 Impacts of vertical velocity profile (dynamic effect) . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.4.3 Sensitivities to the upper bound of integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5 Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Chapter 3 Impacts of Model Spatial Resolution on the Vertical Structure of Convec-
tion .................................................................................................................................. 31
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.2 Design of sensitivity experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.1 The atmospheric model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.2 The sensitivity experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.2.3 Satellite and field campaign datasets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.3 Method of analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.3.1 Heat source (Q1) and moisture sink (Q2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.3.2 The dependence of convective vertical structure on precipitation rate . 38
3.4 Impacts of spatial resolution on simulations of tropical climate . . . . . . 39
3.4.1 Contrast between heavy-rain and light-rain regimes . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.4.2 Contrast between western and eastern Pacific ITCZs . . . . . . . . . 44
3.5 The moisture budget analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.6 Summary and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Chapter 4 Vertical Structure of Tropical Convection in CMIP5 Models........................ 54
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.2 Data and method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.3 Vertical structure of tropical convection in CMIP5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.4 Precipitation pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Future Work........................................................................ 66
5.1 Key Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
5.2 Caveats in this approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.3 Future Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Appendix A..................................................................................................................... 71
Appendix B..................................................................................................................... 73
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指導教授 余嘉裕(Jia-Yuh Yu) 審核日期 2016-12-1
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