博碩士論文 100684002 詳細資訊




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姓名 楊哲銘(Che-Ming Yang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 應用地質研究所
論文名稱 速度相依摩擦律應用於遽變式平面破壞與增積岩楔
(Applications of velocity-dependent friction law on catastrophic plane failure and accretionary wedge)
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摘要(中) 摩擦係數為斷層帶和山崩滑動面中重要之力學特性,其控制著斷層之剪動行為也決定山崩的運動過程,然而,摩擦係數與行為受到剪動速度、位移、正向應力、水、溫度、礦物組成、粒徑大小與剪切構造發育程度等影響。藉由低至高速旋剪設備進行不同速度之長位移旋剪實驗,將實驗結果建立速度相依摩擦律,便可計算摩擦係數於不同的滑移速度與累積位移之變化,若考慮其他不同實驗條件進行量測與分析,便可將其納入摩擦律中評估所造成之影響,並描述該材料所組成滑動面於滑動不同階段時之剪切強度。本論文將介紹引入速度位移相依摩擦律之Newmark 位移法來計算地震誘發山崩塊體之運動過程,以集集地震誘發之草嶺山崩為例,成功地再現草嶺山崩啟動、加速、撞擊與停止之運動歷程;另一方面,在非線性臨界楔模型中,透過地表調查與地層剖面分析,推估臨界楔之強度,再利用斷層泥於不同速度(長位移)進行旋剪摩擦實驗,建立大範圍速度與摩擦係數關係,評估適當之基底滑脫面摩擦係數。本論文證明速度位移相依摩擦律不僅可應用於地震誘發之高速山崩,亦可應用於大地構造空間與時間尺度之模型中。
摘要(英) The friction coefficient of a fault gouge or sliding plane dominates the fault dynamics and kinematics of a landslide. However, the friction coefficient and behavior of fault gouges or sliding planes are influenced by the slip rate, displacement, normal stress, pore pressure, water content, temperature, mineral content, particle size, and shear structure. We performed a series of rotary shear tests under different experimental conditions from low to high velocity to establish the velocity-dependent friction law. Accordingly, the friction coefficient can be evaluated by varying the slip rate and accumulated slip displacement. This study presents two applications of the velocity-dependent friction law, a kinematic analysis of catastrophic planar failure and an estimation of the strength of the detachment fault of the accretionary wedge. The first target is the famous planar failure of Tsaoling landslide, Taiwan, which was triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. We adopted Newmark displacement analysis with velocity-displacement dependent friction law to reproduce the kinematic history of the Tsaoling landslide, considering the phases of initiation, acceleration, collision, and deposition. For the second application, we present a modified critical taper model with nonlinear Hoek-Brown failure criterion and utilize field investigations and laboratory tests to estimate the wedge strength in western central Taiwan. The slip velocity dependent friction coefficient of the detachment fault can be obtained via a series of rotary shear tests with a wide slip rate range. Consequently, the rotary shear test and velocity-dependent friction law can be applied successfully to quantify the kinematics of the catastrophic landslide and the critical taper angle of accretionary wedge, even as their temporal and spatial scales are extremely different.
關鍵字(中) ★ 旋剪摩擦實驗
★ 速度位移相依摩擦律
★ Newmark位移法
★ 草嶺山崩
★ 臨界楔模型
★ Hoek-Brown破壞準則
★ 基底滑脫斷層
關鍵字(英) ★ Rotary-shear friction experiment
★ velocity-dependent friction law
★ Newmark displacement method
★ Tsaoling landslide
★ critical taper model
★ Hoek-Brown failure criterion
★ basal detachment fault
論文目次 Table of contents
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝辭 iii
Table of contents iv
List of figures vii
List of tables xiii
Introduction and overview 1
1. Initiation, movement, and run-out of the giant Tsaoling landslide – What can we learn from a simple rigid block model and a velocity-displacement dependent friction law? 6
Abstract 6
1.1 Introduction 7
1.2 1999 Tsaoling landslide event 11
1.2.1 Geological background 11
1.2.2 Topography and motion of the Tsaoling landslide 13
1.3 Friction experiments on bedding-parallel fault gouge – Low- to high-velocity rotary-shear tests 17
1.3.1 A low- to high-velocity rotary-shear friction apparatus 17
1.3.2 Experimental procedures 20
1.3.3 Experimental results on bedding-parallel fault gouge 21
1.3.4 Microstructural observations 27
1.4 Compilation of existing friction data from the Tsaoling landslide materials 32
1.4.1 Friction behaviors of shale and fault gouge under dry and wet conditions 32
1.4.2 Velocity-dependence of the slip weakening parameters 34
1.5 Initiation and kinematics of the Tsaoling landslide based on a rigid block model that incorporate a velocity-displacement dependent friction law 37
1.6.1 Newmark displacement method 37
1.6.2 Rigid block modeling of the Tsaoling landslide with semi-fault gouge parameters 40
1.6.3 Rigid block modeling with existing friction data of shale and fault gouge 44
1.6 Discussion 47
1.6.1 Newmark analysis of the Tsaoling landslide 47
1.6.2 Friction constitutive law and importance of water 50
1.6.3 Microstructures of deformed gouge 56
1.6.4 Energy budget of the Tsaoling landslide 58
1.7 Conclusions 59
Acknowledgements 61
2. Non-linear critical taper model - determination of accretionary wedge strength and inferring the basal-detachment strength 62
Abstract 62
2.1 Introduction 63
2.2 Non-linear Hoek-Brown (HB) failure criterion 66
2.3 Proposed critical taper model incorporating the non-linear HB failure criterion (Critical Hoek-Brown Wedge, CHBW) 72
2.4 Determination of wedge strength using the CHBW model in western central Taiwan 76
2.4.1 Study area and geometric parameters 76
2.4.2 Determination of values 79
2.4.3 Determination of 81
2.4.4 Determination of 83
2.4.5 Determination of the wedge strength 85
2.4.6 Validation of the proposed model to estimate the wedge strength 85
2.5 Friction coefficient of detachment – Low- to high-velocity rotary shear tests 89
2.6 Discussion 95
2.6.1 The wedge thickness dependency of CHBW and CMCW models 95
2.6.2 Sensitivity analysis of the strength parameters of HB and MC failure criteria for wedge strength and critical taper angle 99
2.6.3 Prospects advantages of the proposed CHBW model 103
2.6.4 Insights regarding the detachment strength—inter- to co-seismic slip rate dependency 105
2.7 Conclusions 110
Acknowledgments 111
References 112
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指導教授 董家鈞(Jia-Jyun Dong) 審核日期 2017-7-7
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