博碩士論文 101124001 詳細資訊




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姓名 黃辰翔(Chen-Siang Huang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 哲學研究所
論文名稱 Naess深層生態學研究
(On Arne Naess′s Deep Ecology)
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摘要(中) 面對目前世界日益嚴重的環境危機,雖然我們可以藉由科學與技術的幫助,
來舒緩環境的壓力,但這究竟不是解決問題的首要答案,若我們能夠改變當前人
類錯誤對待自然的觀念,方能有效解決此一問題。因此,本文將研究挪威哲學家
Arne Naess 所開創之深層生態學思想,他尋求並批判現代環境危機的根源,希望
能夠藉此改變人類對自然的態度,進而實現人與自然和諧共處的綠色世界。
本文以Naess 的理論為參考基礎,全文將圍繞在理論與實踐層面上,而將重
點放在深層生態學的理論。在理論上,深層生態學以完形本體論做為其哲學基礎,
並以嚴謹的邏輯體系建立自我實現理論,挑戰了西方的哲學傳統;在實踐上,他
提出深層生態學式的生活方式,並建議我們透過實際的社會行動來改變當前嚴峻
的生態問題。如今,深層生態學已成為西方環境哲學中,重要的學派之一。
摘要(英) To respond to the increasingly occurring and serious environmental crisis, although science and technology have been used to slow down this overwhelming pressure, this is not the primary answer. To effectively deal with this problem, we ought to change human’s present wrong conception towards nature. Therefore, this thesis aims to study Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess on his founded theory known as deep ecology. He sought and critiqued the root cause of the contemporary environmental crisis in the hope to change human behavior towards nature, and thus achieve the green world where human and nature live harmoniously together.

This thesis is grounded on Naess’ theory. While the whole thesis centered on both the theory and practice, the focus is mainly placed on the former. In theory, deep ecology is based on gestalt ontology as a philosophical foundation, and uses rigorous logic system to establish self-realization theory, which challenges the traditional western environmental philosophy. In practice, Naess proposes a lifestyle of deep ecology, and suggests actual social action to change the current severe ecological problems. Today, deep ecology has become an important school in Western environment philosophy.
關鍵字(中) ★ Arne Naess
★ 深層生態學
★ 完形本體論
★ 自我實現
關鍵字(英) ★ Arne Naess
★ Deep Ecology
★ Gestalt Ontology
★ Self-Realization
論文目次 導論 1
第一章 深層生態學概述 6
第一節 深層生態學的緣起 6
一、環境問題的人口根源 9
二、環境問題的經濟根源 9
三、環境問題的技術根源 10
第二節 淺層生態學與深層生態學 12
第二章 Naess的生態智慧T思想 18
第一節 深層生態學的思想基礎 18
一、生態學、生態哲學與生態智慧 19
二、深層生態學的世界觀 21
三、完形本體論 24
第二節 生態智慧T的邏輯體系 28
一、圍裙圖 28
二、自我實現 34
第三節 深層生態學的實踐觀 42
一、生態智慧與生活方式 42
二、生態智慧的經濟觀 45
三、生態智慧的政治觀 46
第三章 對Naess深層生態學的批判與回應 48
第一節 對深層生態學的批判 49
一、生態女性主義的批判 50
二、社會生態學的批判 52
三、William Grey的批判 54
第二節 深層生態學的回應 56
一、回應生態女性主義及社會生態學的批判 56
二、回應William Grey的批判 59
第三節 小結 60
結論 65
參考書目 69
參考文獻 參考書目
英文專書:

Bell, Daniel, 1976, “The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting,” New York: Basic Books Inc.

Bodian, Stephan, “Simple in Means, Rich in Ends: An Interview with Arne Naess,” in George Sessions (ed.), 1995, Deep Ecology for the 21th Century, Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc.

Bookchin, Murray, 1990, Remarking Society, New York: Black Rose Books.

_______________, “What is Social Ecology,” in Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark (eds.), 2001, Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, 3rd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

_______________, “Social Ecology versus Deep Ecology: A Challenge for the Ecology Movement,” in Louis P. Pojman (ed.), 2008, Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, 5rd ed., Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.

Callicott, J. Baird, 1989, In Defense of the Land Ethic: Essays in Environmental Philosophy, New York: State University of New York Press.

Carson, Rachel, 1962, Silent Spring, England: Penguin Books.

Cramer, Gail L., Jensen, Clarence W., 1985, Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, 3rd (ed.), New York: Wiley.

Devall, Bill & Sessions, George, 1985, “Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered”, Utah: Gibbs Smith Publisher.

Fox, Warwick, 1995, Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing New Foundations for Environmentalism, New York: State University of New York Press.

____________, “The Deep Ecology-Ecofeminism Debate and its Parallels,” in Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark (eds.), 2001, Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, 3rd (ed.), New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Glasser, Harold, 2005, “Arne Naess—A Wandering Wonderer: Bringing the Search for Wisdom Back to Life”, in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, Volume 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

_____________, “Demystifying the Critiques of Deep Ecology,” in Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark (eds.), 2001, Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, 3rd ed., New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Hartnack, Justus, “Scandinavian philosophy,” in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1967, in Paul Edwards (ed.), Volume.7, New York: Macmillan.

Holmes III, Rolston, 1988, Environmental Ethics: Duties to and Values in the Natural World, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Kheel, Marti, “Ecofeminism and Deep Ecology: Reflections on Identity and Difference,” in Irene Diamond and Gloria Feman Orenstein (eds.), 1990, Reweaving The World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L, Randers, Jorgen, Behrens III, W. W., 1972, The Limits to Growth: A Report for THE CLUB of Rome’s Project on the Predicament of Mankind, New York: Universe Books.

McLaughlin, Andrew, “The Heart of Deep Ecology,” in George Sessions (ed.), 1995, Deep Ecology for the 21th Century, Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc.

Naess, Arne, 1989, Ecology, Community and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy, David Rothenburg (Trans. & ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

__________, “The Deep Ecological Movement: Some Philosophical Aspects,” in Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark (eds.), 2001, Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, 3rd (ed.) New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

__________, 1995, “Deepness of Questions and the Deep Ecology Movement“, in Deep Ecology for the 21th Century, in George Sessions (ed.), Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc.

__________, 1995, “The Shallow and the Deep, Long-range Ecology Movement a Summary“, in Deep Ecology for the 21th Century, in George Sessions (ed.), Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc.

__________, 1995, “The Deep Ecology “Eight Points” Revisited”, in Deep Ecology for the 21th Century, in George Sessions (ed.), Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc.

__________, “An Example of a Place: Tvergastein”, in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “The World of Concrete Contents”, in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “Gestalt Thinking and Buddhism”, in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “Spinoza and the Deep Ecology Movement”, in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “Gestalt Ontology and Gestalt Thinking”, in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “The Apron Diagram”, in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “Deepness of Questions and the Deep Ecology Movement”, in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “Should We Try to Relieve Clear Cases of Suffering in Nature?,” in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “Notes on the Methodology of Normative Systems,” in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “Self-Realization: An Ecological Approach to Being in the World,” in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “What Do We as Supporters of the Deep Ecology Movement Stand for and Believe In?,” in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, Volume 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, 2005, “Deep Ecology and Lifestyle,” in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, Volum 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, “The Basics of the Deep Ecology Movement,” in Alan Drengson, Bill Devall (eds.), 2008, The Ecology of Wisdom: writings by Arne Naess, Berkeley: Publishers Group West.

__________, 2005, “An Outline of the Problems Ahead,” in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

__________, “Deep Ecology for The Twenty-Second Century,” in George Sessions (ed.), 1995, Deep Ecology for the 21th Century, Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc.

__________, 2005, “The Third World, Wilderness, and Deep Ecology”, in Harold Glasser, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, George Sessions (eds.), 2005, The Selected Works of Arne Naess, vol. 10, Dordrecht: Springer.

Regan, Tom, 1983, The Case for Animal Rights, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sessions, George, “Introduction,” in Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark (eds.), 2001, Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, 3rd (ed.) New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Sessions, Robert, “Deep Ecology versus Ecofeminism: Healthy Differences or Incompatible Philosophies,” in Karen J. Warren (ed.), 1996, Ecological Feminist Philosophies, Indiana: Indiana University Press.

Worster, Donald, “The Shaky Ground of Sustainability,” in George Sessions (ed.), 1995, Deep Ecology for the 21th Century, Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc.

Zimmerman, Michael, “General Introduction,” in Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark (eds.), 2001, Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, 3rd (ed.) New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

__________________, “Feminism, Deep Ecology, and Environmental Ethics,” in Alan Drengson, Yuichi Inoue (eds.), 1995, The Deep Ecology Movement: An Introductory Anthology, Berkeley: North Atlantic Publishers.

______________________, “Deep Ecology and Ecofeminism: The Emerging Dialogue,” in Irene Diamond and Gloria Feman Orenstein (eds.), 1990, Reweaving The World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism, San. Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

英文期刊

Biehl, Janet, 1995, “Theses on Social Ecology and Deep Ecology,” Green Perspectives: 4-6.

Clark, John P., 2010, “A Dialogue with Arne Naess on Social Ecology and Deep Ecology (1988-1997),” The Trumpeter Journal of Ecosophy, 26(2):20-39.

Devall, Bill, Drengson, Alan, 2006, “Arne Naess, His Life and Work Part Two: Reflections on Naess’s Inquiries,” The Trumpeter Journal of Ecosophy 22(1): 2-5.

Grey, William, 1986, “A Critique of Deep Ecology,” Journal of Applied Philosophy, 3(2): 211-216.

Guha, Ramaehandra, 1989, “Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique,” Environmental Ethics 11: 71-83.

Marietta, D. E. Jr., 1982, ”Knowledge and Obligation in Environmental Ethics: A Phenomenological Approach” Environmental, Ethics 4, pp. 153-162.

Naess, Arne, 1989, “Ecosophy and Gestalt Ontology”, The Trumpeter Journal of Ecosophy 6(4): 134-137.

__________, 2005, “Culture and Environment,” The Trumpeter Journal of Ecosophy 21(1): 54-58.

__________, 2005, “Reflections on Gestalt Ontology,” The Trumpeter Journal of Ecosophy 21(1): 119-128.

Rolston, Holmes, 1975, “Is There an Ecological Ethics”, Ethics, 85(2), pp. 93-109.

_____________, 1982 “Are Values in Nature Subjective or Objective?”, Environmental Ethics 4, pp. 125-151.

Singer, Peter, 1973, “The Triviality of the Debate over “Is-Ought” and the Definition of “Moral”, American Philosophical Quarterly, Volume 10: 51-56.

Tokar, Brian, 1988, “Exploring the New Ecologies: Social Ecology, Deep Ecology and the Future of Green Political Thought,” Protesters and Ideologues: Directions in Environmental Politics, 15(4): 31-43.


中文部分:

專書

雷毅,2001,《深層生態學思想研究》,北京:清華大學出版社。

雷毅,2012,《深層生態學:闡釋與整合》,上海,上海交通大學出版社。

張豈之,舒德幹,謝揚舉(編),2004年,《環境哲學前沿》(第一輯),陝西:陝西人民出版社。

黃慶明,1993,《實然應然問題探微》,台北:鵝湖出版社。

阿爾多‧李奧帕德(著)/吳美貞(譯),2005,《砂郡年記:李奧帕德的自然沉思》(台北:天下遠見出版),頁323。

約翰‧席德(John Seed)等著/黃懿翎(譯),2015年,《像山一樣思考》,台北:紅桌文化/左守創作有限公司。

梅利‧卜泉(Murray Bookchin)著,1987年,《生態學與革命思潮》,台北:南方叢書出版社。

巴里‧康芒納著,1997年,《封閉的循環─自然、人和技術》,吉林:吉林人民出版社。

戴斯‧賈丁斯(Joseph R. Des Jardins)著/林官明、楊愛明譯,2002年,《環境倫理學─環境哲學導論》,北京:北京大學出版社。

佛雷澤‧納什(著)/楊通進(譯),2005,《大自然的權利:環境倫理學史》,青島:青島出版社。

關永中,2009,《知識論─近世思潮》,台北:五南出版有限公司。

傅偉勳,2007,《西洋哲學史》,台北:三民書局。

瑞秋‧卡森(著)/李文昭)譯),2001,《寂靜的春天》,台北:晨星出版公司。

丹尼爾‧貝爾(Daniel Bell)著/高銛、王宏周、魏章玲譯,1997年,《後工業社會的來臨》,北京:新華出版社。

庫爾特‧考夫卡著/黎煒譯,2000,《格式塔心理學原理》(上),台北:聯經出版社。

期刊論文

王從恕,2005年,〈從「深層生態學」探討人與環境的關係〉,《生物多樣性與環境倫理教育研討會:理論與實踐的對話》,台北:銘傳大學通識教育中心,頁57-74。

洪如玉,2014年,〈深層生態學內涵探究及其教育蘊義〉,《新竹教育大學教育學報》,第三十一卷第二期,頁103-134。

程進發,2013年,〈斯賓諾莎與深層生態學之間──以自然、自我實現的概念作為連結的論述〉,《應用倫理評論》第54 期,頁179-199。

謝森和(2003),〈生態概論〉,《2003年生態工法人才培訓講習會論文集》,頁6-1~6-11頁。

張惠娜,2010年,〈綠色反對綠色:布克金對深層生態學的批判〉,世界哲學,第3期,頁25-34。

Eugene Hargrove(著)/郭輝(譯),2005,〈西方環境倫理學在非西方國家中的地位:西方面對東方〉,《南京林業大學學報(人文社會科學版)》第5 卷第1 期,頁11-16。

Charlene Spretnak(著)/秦喜清(譯),1997,〈生態女權主義建設性的重大貢獻〉,國外社會科學第6期,頁62-65。

學位論文:

程進發(研撰)/蕭振邦(指導),2007,《為環境倫理學整體論辯護及其應用》中壢:國立中央大學文學院哲學研究所博士論文

網路:

Bookchin, Murray, 1988, “The Crisis in the Ecology Movement,” Anarchy Archives URL=http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bookchin/gp/greenperspectives6.html(2015/11/12瀏覽)。

Bookchin, Murray, 1987, “Social Ecology versus Deep Ecology: A Challenge for the Ecology Movement,” Anarchy Achives: URL= http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bookchin/socecovdeepeco.html. (2015年10月17瀏覽)。

IPCC, 2013, “Summary for Policymakers,” in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, URL= http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/ (2015/11/20瀏覽)。

Spinoza, Baruch, Correspondence, Some Texts from Early Modern Philosophy, p. 50. URL= http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/authors/spinoza (Accessed on June 27, 2015)。

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2012, “World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables,” URL=http://esa.un.org/wpp/Documentation/pdf/WPP2012_%20KEY%20FINDINGS.pdf. (2015/3/18瀏覽)。

Wray, Richard, 2008, Breeding toxins from dead PCs, The Guardian (Italic), URL=www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/may/06/waste.pollution(2015/04/14 瀏覽)。

Weyler, Rex, 2009, “Deep Green: The Living Mountain: Arne Naess 1912-2009,” Greenpeace International, URL= http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/about/deep-green/deep-green-feb-2009/ (2015/11/01瀏覽)。

〈IPCC副主席示警:二氧化碳排放量 朝最壞變化攀升〉,奇摩新聞,URL=http://tw.news.yahoo.com/ipcc%E5%89%AF%E4%B8%BB%E5%B8%AD%E7%A4%BA%E8%AD%A6-%E4%BA%8C%E6%B0%A7%E5%8C%96%E7%A2%B3%E6%8E%92%E6%94%BE%E9%87%8F-%E6%9C%9D%E6%9C%80%E5%A3%9E%E8%AE%8A%E5%8C%96%E6%94%80%E5%8D%87-213000781.html。(2015/11/20瀏覽)。


聯合國貿易暨發展會議2005年《世界投資報告》:http://unctad.org/en/Docs/wir2005_en.pdf (2015年10月10日瀏覽)。

國立交通大學通識教育中心,環境價值與倫理課程。http://shue98.myweb.hinet.net/c2047.htm (2015年10月14日瀏覽)。

鐘丁茂、徐雪麗,2007,〈生態主義的興起、演進與意義〉,第八屆《現代思潮》研討會,23-44頁。http://blog.yam.com/eco_tech/article/11839301 (2015年10月17日瀏覽)。
指導教授 李凱恩(Jack Lee) 審核日期 2016-1-18
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