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姓名 黃玉如(Yu-Ru Huang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 學習與教學研究所
論文名稱 On the Effects of Task-Based Instruction on Vocabulary Learning: A Study of EFL Junior High School Students
(On the Effects of Task-Based Instruction on Vocabulary Learning: A Study of EFL Junior High School Students)
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摘要(中) 字彙在第二語言學習中普遍被認定為關鍵的一環。然而字彙教學的內容通常侷限在教授字彙本身形音對應而忽略其它重要部分,例如目標語言中字與字間環環相扣的語義關係。除此之外,字彙在實際教學上常以去脈絡化技巧呈現,如利用中英對照單字表或閃示卡來背誦單字,這直接影響學習者學習目標語言字彙的方式:主要透過背誦方式來學習,這表示字彙真實語用方面很少被關注。本研究旨在研究兩個面相:於教學內容上探討英語字彙中的語義關係(例如anger是emotion的一種),並透過使用任務導向教學法,非刻意地讓學習者需要去尋找、發現及利用英語單字中的語義關係。
受試者共計59位國中生,他們隨機被分配為四組:一組控制組,一組傳統教學組及兩個任務組 (一組為較重涉入負荷,另一組為較輕涉入負荷。所有的受試者都要經歷三階段的實驗過程:前測、實驗介入及立即後測與延宕後測。使用七種工具來探討學習成效: 兩種用來檢視英語及中文形義對應記憶的傳統字彙評量工具及五種檢視語義關係及受試者參與任務想法的開放式另類工具。傳統字彙評量工具為一個翻譯測驗及一個字彙知識量表,而開放式另類工具則用來檢視兩個任務組的學習成效:包含字彙語義圖活動、一個問卷、任務說明問題、面談及小組錄音。
上述的兩種測驗工具呈現截然不同的效果。傳統教學組在兩個傳統字彙評量工具的分數高於其它三個組,這代表傳統教學讓學生直接熟悉個別的單字知識,例如以母語翻譯而成的對應詞。另一方面,任務導向組的受試者則顯現涉入負荷的不同會造成他們字彙語義圖中字彙語義關係精密的差異,任務導向組的學習效果也同時呈現在問卷、任務說明問題、面談及小組錄音。實驗結果顯示學習者的注意力被引導至目標語言的字彙語義關係時,有助於語言精密能力的發展。再者,涉入負荷較重的任務比涉入負荷較輕的任務更能引發較深刻的精密能力。整體來說,實驗發現建議可以將更多教學重心放在字彙的語義關係,教師可以將此類生活中真實任務應用在課程中,特別是涉入負荷較重的任務。
摘要(英) Vocabulary is widely acknowledged as a central component in second language learning. The content of vocabulary instruction, however, is often restricted to conveying form-meaning correspondences of individual items of vocabulary without attention to other crucial aspects such as semantic relations that each word holds with other words in the target language. In addition, how vocabulary is incorporated in pedagogical practice has been largely limited to decontextualized techniques such as memorizing through word lists or flashcards. This directly limits how the learners learn vocabulary in the target language: mainly through memorization. This implies that little attention is paid to the authentic uses of vocabulary. This thesis aims to provide two areas of contribution: concerning content, it focuses on learning the lexical semantic relations among words in English (e.g., anger is a kind of emotion); it approaches this content using a task-based approach through a task that incidentally requires learners to seek, find, and use the semantic relations among English words.
Fifty-nine junior high school students were divided into four groups: one control group, one conventional instruction group, and two task groups (a higher involvement load group and a lower involvement load group). All the participants experienced three-phase sessions: pre-test, intervention, immediate post-test, and delayed post-test. Seven types of instruments were used for investigation of learning gains: two conventional vocabulary assessments solicited the retention involving L2-L1 correspondence and five open-ended alternative instruments for exploring knowledge of lexical semantic relations and the participants’ opinions toward the task. Conventional vocabulary assessments consisted of a translation test and Vocabulary Knowledge Scale whereas open-ended alternative instruments solicited data from the two task groups including a vocabulary semantic maps activity, a questionnaire, task-clarification question, interviews and group recordings.
Contrasting outcomes were yielded from these two types of instruments. The conventional instruction group outperformed the other three groups in the two conventional vocabulary assessments. This outcome reflects that the conventional instruction directly prepared the students for item-based word knowledge, such as L1 translation equivalents. The task-based participants showed that the involvement load made a difference in the lexical semantic relations they could express in their semantic maps. They also showed effects of the task-based learning in the questionnaire, task-clarification question, interviews and group recordings. The results suggest that drawing learners’ attention to lexical semantic relations within the target language in the curriculum might cultivate the learners’ elaboration competence. Moreover, tasks of more involvement load seem to induce deeper elaboration than the tasks of lower involvement load. In short, the findings suggest that more focus might be put on meaning relations among words and that teachers may embed such authentic tasks in the curriculum, especially the tasks of higher involvement load.
關鍵字(中) ★ 任務
★ 任務導向教學法
★ 學習任務引發之心力涉入負荷假說
★ 字彙語義關係
關鍵字(英) ★ Task
★ Task-based instruction
★ Task-induced involvement load hypothesis
★ Lexical semantic relations
論文目次 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Purpose and Motivation of the Research 4
1.1.1 Vocabulary Instruction and the Lexical Semantic Relations 4
1.1.2 Approach of Vocabulary Teaching and the Task-Based Instruction 6
1.2 The Scope of the Study 9
1.3 Research Questions 11
1.4 Structure of the Thesis 11
1.5 Summary of Chapter One 11
CHAPTER TWO: BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.1 Explicit and Implicit Learning and Knowledge 13
2.2 Intentional/Incidental Learning 17
2.3 Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) 20
2.4 Task-Induced Involvement Load Hypothesis 25
2.5 Summary of Chapter Two 28
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 29
3.1 Overview of Methods 29
3.2 Research Design 33
3.2.1 Phase One: The Pretest 35
3.2.2 Phase Two: The Experiment and the Immediate Posttest 35
3.2.3 Phase Three: The Delayed Posttest 51
3.3 Instrument Developments 51
3.3.1 Selecting Songs and the Target Vocabulary of the Task 52
3.3.2 Vocabulary Size Test 54
3.3.3 Translation Test 55
3.3.4 Vocabulary Knowledge Scale 60
3.3.5 Listening Test 62
3.3.6 Vocabulary Semantic Map Activity 63
3.3.7 Questionnaire 65
3.3.8 Interview 69
3.3.9 Peer Evaluation 69
3.3.10 A Task-clarification Question 70
3.4 Summary of Chapter Three 70
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 71
4.1 Participants’ Information for Analysis 73
4.2 Test Results 74
4.2.1 Translation Test 74
4.2.2 Vocabulary Knowledge Scale 78
4.3 Vocabulary Semantic Maps Activity 81
4.4 Questionnaire 84
4.4.1 Results of Ten Likert-scale Type Items 87
4.4.2 Results of Three Open-ended Questions 89
4.4.3 Collaboration Modes and Group Involvement to the Twelve Songs 94
4.5 Task-clarification Question 96
4.6 Interview Results 99
4.6.1 First Interview Question 99
4.6.2 Second Interview Question 100
4.6.3 Third Interview Question 101
4.6.4 Fourth Interview Question 103
4.7 Group Recordings 104
4.7.1 Group Collaboration and the Members’ Involvement 105
4.7.2 Signs of the Tasks versus Signs of the Tradition 106
4.7.3 Signs of Lexical Semantic Relations versus Signs of L1-L2 Correspondence 107
4.8 Students’ Music Indices 109
4.9 Summary of Chapter Four 112
CHAPTER FIVE: GENERAL DISCUSSION 116
5.1 Pedagogical Implications 116
5.2 Limitation of the Present Research 119
5.3 Suggestions for Future Research 122
REFERENCES 124

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指導教授 衛友賢(David Wible) 審核日期 2018-1-22
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