博碩士論文 101184005 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:8 、訪客IP:54.209.227.199
姓名 黃柏青(Po-Ching Huang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 哲學研究所
論文名稱 胎兒唐氏症施行人工流產的倫理反省
(Ethical Reflection in Aborting the Fetus with Down syndrome)
相關論文
★ 人類中心主義批判研究★ 從Peter Singer的動物解放學說探究台灣流浪犬的問題
★ Rolston生態環境內在價值探索★ Naess深層生態學研究
★ Callicott環境倫理研究
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 產前唐氏症篩檢可能涉及複雜的後續處置決定,特別是人工流產的爭議,西方當代倫理學界大致上可分成保守派與自由派兩大立場,兩者都是從「胎兒的生命權」與「孕婦的身體自主權」相互衝突的角度來分析人工流產的問題,而忽略了需考慮實際的情境及孕婦與胎兒之間的關係;因此最終還是落入孕婦與胎兒雙方權利義務的協調分配,而無法妥善處理「胎兒唐氏症施行人工流產」的倫理爭議。此外,繼續或終止懷孕的選擇還可能陷入Derek Parfit所提出之「非同一問題」的困擾,使得原本已成僵局的爭議更形複雜難解。
由於保守派、自由派及Parfit的觀點對「胎兒唐氏症施行人工流產」的問題可能產生不同的道德判斷與道德衝突,為求對此複雜困難的議題作一更根本的消解,我們有必要回歸到最根源的基本倫理學理論:效益主義與康德倫理學進行探討。然而,無論是效益主義或康德倫理學,其思維仍是從傳統的權利觀點分析胎兒生命權與孕婦身體自主權的衝突,忽略了母胎之間具有密不可分的關係,並非兩獨立不相干的個體。女性的經驗與關懷倫理學的立場可提供我們一種新的方式去看待、理解「人工流產」這個問題,轉向以孕婦與胎兒的親密關係來看待人工流產的爭議,對「胎兒唐氏症施行人工流產」的問題或許能指出一條不同於西方主流觀點的思考方向。本論文將闡明關懷倫理學回應此倫理爭議的優勢,最後再藉由對此問題的倫理反省,提出一組以「關係自主」概念為基礎的臨床準則,協助我們做出適當的生育決策。
摘要(英) When the fetus has Down syndrome, the pregnant woman would face the problem of artificial abortion. However, artificial abortion is a difficult moral issue in bioethics. There are two traditional approaches which both analyze the controversy from rights in this topic, namely the conservative and the liberal position. In addition, “non-identity problem” also disturbs our common belief and threatens the genetic health policy. These approaches all take the mother and the fetus as separate individuals, and thus neglect the intimate relationship between them. This essay indicates principlism cannot provide a satisfying solution to the moral dilemma of artificial abortion, even would produce different moral judgments and conflicts; therefore, we have to investigate the issue from basic moral theories such as utilitarianism, Kantism, and ethics of care. Ethics of care is a different voice from the traditional main moral theories and tries to take a new approach which focuses on the relationship between the mother and the fetus instead of the rights approach in the reflection of the issue. This essay will clarify the advantage of care ethics in responding the issue, and try to offer a clinical guideline based on “relational autonomy”. It is hoped that the guideline can help us make an appropriate decision and provide an important reference for the clinical practice.
關鍵字(中) ★ 唐氏症
★ 人工流產
★ 關懷倫理
★ 關係自主
★ 遺傳諮詢
關鍵字(英) ★ Down syndrome
★ artificial abortion
★ ethics of care
★ relational autonomy
★ genetic counseling
論文目次 中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
目錄 iii
導論 1
第一章 面臨的問題 8
第一節 唐氏症簡介 8
第二節 產前胎兒唐氏症篩檢的相關考量 11
第三節 胎兒唐氏症施行人工流產的倫理爭議 14
第二章 西方主流觀點 23
第一節 保守派的觀點 24
第二節 自由派的觀點 31
第三節 非同一問題的困擾 38
第三章 基本倫理學理論的觀點 45
第一節 效益主義的觀點 46
第二節 康德倫理學的觀點 53
第四章 關懷倫理學的觀點 59
第一節 倫理學的另一種聲音 59
第二節 關懷倫理學理論的探討 67
第三節 與本論文主題相關之關懷倫理學觀點 85
第五章 關係自主的決策 95
第一節 對傳統自主概念的重構:關係自主 97
第二節 關係自主決策的實踐:家庭會議 106
第三節 胎兒唐氏症施行人工流產的臨床準則 114
結語 120
參考文獻 127
參考文獻 一、專書著作
方志華,2004,《關懷倫理學與教育》(臺北市:洪葉文化)。
李明亮主編,2004,《代謝性疾病——台灣經驗》(臺北市:衛生署國民健康局)。
李瑞全,1999,《儒家生命倫理學》(臺北市:鵝湖出版社)。
——,2013,《儒家道德規範根源論》(新北市:鵝湖出版社)。
林火旺,2009,《基本倫理學》(臺北市:三民書局)。
曾淑瑜,2010,《醫療倫理與法律》(臺北市:元照出版)。
Immanuel Kant(著),牟宗三(譯註),1983,《康德的道德哲學》,二版(臺北市:臺灣學生書局)。
Peter A. Singer(編著),蔡甫昌(編譯),2009,《臨床生命倫理學》,二版(臺北縣板橋市:財團法人醫院評鑑暨醫療品質策進會)。
Yves Bossart(著),區立遠(譯),2015,《如果沒有今天,明天會不會有昨天?五十五個讓哲學家也瘋狂的思想實驗》(臺北市:商周出版)。
Beauchamp, T. L., and Childress, J. F., 2009, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 6th ed., New York: Oxford University Press.
Boonin, D., 2002, A Defense of Abortion, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Clement, G., 1996, Care, Autonomy, and Justice: Feminism and the Ethics of Care, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Engelhardt, H. T., Jr., 1996, The Foundations of Bioethics, 2nd ed., New York: Oxford University Press.
Feinberg, J., 1980, Rights, Justice, and the Bounds of Liberty: Essays in Social Philosophy, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
——, 1984, Harm to Others, New York: Oxford University Press.
Feldman, F., 1978, Introductory Ethics, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Fineman, M., 1995, The Neutered Mother: The Sexual Family and Other Twentieth Century Tragedies, New York: Routledge.
Gilligan, C., 1982, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Harris, J., 1998, Clones, Genes, and Immortality: Ethics and the Genetic Evolution, New York: Oxford University Press.
Held, V., 2006, The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global, New York: Oxford University Press.
Hospers, J., 1997, An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis, 4th ed., London: Routledge.
Jonsen, A. R., Siegler, M., and Winslade, W. J., 2015, Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 8th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Kant, I., 1963, Lectures on Ethics, translated by L. Infield, New York: Harper & Row.
Kittay, E. F., 1999, Love’s Labor: Essays on Women, Equality and Dependency, New York: Routledge.
Kohlberg, L., 1984, The Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages, San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Kymlicka, W., 2002, Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Li, J., 2002, Can Death Be a Harm to the Person Who Dies?, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lo, B., 2009, Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: A Guide for Clinicians, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Nagel, T., 1979, Moral Questions, London: Cambridge University Press.
Noddings, N., 1984, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
——, 2002, Starting at Home: Caring and Social Policy, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
——, 2010, The Maternal Factor: Two Paths to Morality, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Nussbaum, R. L., McInnes, R. R., and Willard, H. F., 2007, Thompson & Thompson Genetics in Medicine, 7th ed., Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.
Okin, S. M., 1989, Justice, Gender, and the Family, New York: Basic Books.
Parfit, D., 1984, Reasons and Persons, New York: Oxford University Press.
Pojman, L. P., 2000, Life and Death: Grappling with the Moral Dilemmas of Our Time, 2nd ed., Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Pojman, L. P., and Fieser, J., 2012, Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 7th ed., Boston: Wadsworth.
Rachels, J., and Rachels, S., 2007, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, 5th ed., Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Regan, T., 2004, The Case for Animal Rights, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Rescher, N., 1975, Unselfishness: The Role of the Vicarious Affects in Moral Philosophy and Social Theory, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Saul, J. M., 2003, Feminism: Issues & Arguments, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sherman, N., 1997, Making a Necessity of Virtue: Aristotle and Kant on Virtue, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Sherwin, S., 1998, The Politics of Women’s Health: Exploring Agency and Autonomy, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Singer, P., 2009, Animal Liberation, 4th ed., New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
——, 2011, Practical Ethics, 3rd ed., New York: Cambridge University Press.
Slote, M., 2007, The Ethics of Care and Empathy, New York: Routledge.
Smart, C., 1989, Feminism and the Power of Law, London: Routledge.
Veach, P. M., LeRoy, B. S., and Bartels, D. M., 2003, Facilitating the Genetic Counseling Process: A Practice Manual, New York: Springer-Verlag.
Warren, M. A., 1997, Moral Status: Obligation to Persons and Other Living Things, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Williams, B., 1981, Moral Luck: Philosophical Papers 1973-1980, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

二、期刊論文
石致華,2011,〈書評:The Maternal Factor: Two Paths to Morality〉,《中央大學人文學報》第45期,頁237-250。
朱紹盈、翁純瑩,2017,〈遺傳/罕見疾病簡介與遺傳諮詢的運用〉,《護理雜誌》第64卷第5期,頁11-17。
吳秀瑾,2005,〈依靠與平等:論Kittay愛的勞動〉,《女學學誌:婦女與性別研究》第19期,頁157-183。
——,2006,〈關懷倫理的道德蘊涵:試論女性主義的道德知識生產與實踐〉,《國立政治大學哲學學報》第 16期,頁107-162。
——,2007,〈非公理化的兩種道德實踐智慧:等差性關懷倫理學與道德個別主義〉,《東吳哲學學報》第15期,頁1-46。
——,2010,〈關懷倫理學的規範性〉,《生命教育研究》第2卷第1期,頁109-134。
——,2013,〈關懷立場論的知識優勢:背負關懷價值的強客觀性〉,《科技、醫療與社會》第17期,頁9-58。
李明濱,1997,〈病人自主與知情同意〉,《醫學教育》第1卷第4期,頁377-388。
林武佐,2004,〈後設倫理學對道德概念及判斷的分析〉,《通識教育年刊》第6期,頁25-48。
林雅萍,2016,〈對自主的再思考:關係取向〉,《應用倫理評論》第61期,頁37-57。
施麗雯,2015,〈台灣的道德先鋒:焦慮、產檢選擇與責任的矛盾〉,《科技、醫療與社會》第21期,頁77-134。
洪惠芬,2008,〈「依賴」是人類社會無可避免的現實與挑戰:Eva F. Kittay對依賴與照顧的論點〉,《台灣社會福利學刊》第6卷第2期,頁147-190。
孫效智,2007,〈人類胚胎之形上與道德地位〉,《國立臺灣大學哲學論評》第34期,頁41-85。
——,2010,〈愚昧的尊嚴?〉,《政治與社會哲學評論》第33期,頁169-207。
——,2011,〈論儒家現實擁有判準理論與等差之愛原則的人類胚胎觀點〉,《國立臺灣大學哲學論評》第42期,頁107-148。
莊世同,2017,〈生命、自主與尊嚴──對德沃金墮胎論證的審視與反思〉,《臺北大學法學論叢》第102期,頁29-72。
許漢,2002,〈論權利的概念〉,《政治與社會哲學評論》第3期,頁179-213。
楊孝友、蔡甫昌、陳慶餘,2004,〈臨床倫理病案討論(7):知情同意(Informed Consent)〉,《當代醫學》第31卷第5期,頁365-369。
楊秀儀,2002,〈溫暖的父權vs.空虛的自主──到底法律要建立什麼樣的醫病關係?〉,《應用倫理研究通訊》第21期,頁19-24。
——,2009,〈「知情放棄」與「空白同意」合乎自主原則嗎?論病人自主之性質〉,《生命教育研究》第1卷第2期,頁97-122。
蔡甫昌、李明濱,2002,〈當代生命倫理學〉,《醫學教育》第6卷第4期,頁381-395。
蔡甫昌、曾瑾珮,2005,〈女性主義生命倫理〉,《醫學教育》第9卷第1期,頁18-32。
蔡甫昌、張至寧、楊智超、胡務亮,2008,〈臺灣遺傳檢驗與諮詢施行之現況分析與倫理反省〉,《醫學教育》第12卷第3期,頁176-195。
蔡甫昌、楊尚儒、張至寧、胡務亮、楊智超,2010,〈遺傳檢測倫理議題及遺傳諮詢倫理準則〉,《臺灣醫學》第14卷第6期,頁658-671。
蔣欣欣、喻永生、余玉眉,2005,〈剖析產前遺傳檢測之諮詢與倫理議題〉,《中華心理衛生學刊》第18卷第1期,頁65-85。
戴華,2001,〈姬莉根的關懷倫理與康德的道德觀點〉,台灣哲學會2001年學術研討會論文,頁1-29。
Annas, G. J., 2005, ““Culture of Life” Politics at the Bedside - The Case of Terri Schiavo”, The New England Journal of Medicine 352: 1710-1715.
Beckwith, F. J., 2004, “Thomson’s “Equal Reasonableness” Argument for Abortion Rights: A Critique”, American Journal of Jurisprudence 49: 185-198.
Beecher, H. K., 1966, “Ethics and Clinical Research”, The New England Journal of Medicine 274: 1354-1360.
Bianchi, D. W., Parker, R. L., Wentworth, J., et al., 2014, “DNA Sequencing versus Standard Prenatal Aneuploidy Screening”, The New England Journal of Medicine 370: 799-808.
Blum, L. A., 1988, “Gilligan and Kohlberg: Implications for Moral Theory” Ethics 98: 472-491.
Brody, H., 1987, “The Physician-Patient Relationship: Models and Criticisms”, Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 8: 205-220.
Donchin, A., 2001, “Understanding Autonomy Relationally: Toward a Reconfiguration of Bioethical Principles”, The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26: 365-386.
Driscoll, D. A., and Gross, S., 2009, “Prenatal Screening for Aneuploidy”, The New England Journal of Medicine 360: 2556-2562.
Emanuel, E. J., and Emanuel, L. L., 1992, “Four Models of the Physician-Patient Relationship”, JAMA 267: 2221-2226.
Fan, R., 1997, “Self-Determination vs. Family-Determination: Two Incommensurable Principles of Autonomy”, Bioethics 11: 309-322.
Fiala, A., 2010, “Justice, Forgiveness, and Care: A Pragmatic Balance”, Ethical Perspectives 17: 580-602.
FitzPatrick, W. J., 2004, “Totipotency and the Moral Status of Embryos: New Problems for an Old Argument”, Journal of Social Philosophy 35: 108-122.
Gillon, R., 1985, “Autonomy and the Principle of Respect for Autonomy”, British Medical Journal 290: 1806-1808.
Gottlieb, R. S., 2002, The Tasks of Embodied Love: Moral Problems in Caring for Children with Disabilities, Hypatia 17: 225-236.
Graaf, R. V. D., and Delden, J. J. V., 2009, “Clarifying Appeals to Dignity in Medical Ethics from an Historical Perspective”, Bioethics 23: 151-160.
Ho, A., 2008, “Relational Autonomy or Undue Pressure? Family’s Role in Medical Decision-making”, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 22: 128-135.
Jecker, N. S., 1994, “Justice and the Private Sphere”, Public Affairs Quarterly 8: 255-266.
Kirk, E., Bottomley, C., and Bourne, T., 2014, “Diagnosing Ectopic Pregnancy and Current Concepts in the Management of Pregnancy of Unknown Location”, Human Reproduction Update 20: 250-261.
Kittay, E. F., 2002, “Love’s Labor Revisited”, Hypatia 17: 237-250.
Kittay, E. F., Jennings, B., and Wasunna, A. A., 2005, “Dependency, Difference and the Global Ethic of Longterm Care”, The Journal of Political Philosophy 13: 443-469.
Kolodny, N., 2010, “Which Relationships Justify Partiality? The Case of Parents and Children”, Philosophy and Public Affairs 38: 37-75.
Kushner, K., Meyer, D., Hansen, M., Bobula, J., Hansen, J., and Pridham, K., 1986, “The Family Conference: What Do Patients Want?”, The Journal of Family Practice 23: 463-467.
Little, M. O., 1999, “Abortion, Intimacy, and the Duty to Gestate”, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2: 295-312.
Manninen, B. A., 2014, “A Kantian Defense of Abortion Rights with Respect for Intrauterine Life”, Diametros 39: 70-92.
Marquis, D., 1989, “Why Abortion Is Immoral”, The Journal of Philosophy 86: 183-202.
Murray, T. H., 1987, “Moral Obligations to the Not-Yet Born: The Fetus as a Patient”, Clinics in Perinatology 14: 329-343.
Nama, V., and Manyonda, I., 2009, “Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy: Diagnosis and Management”, Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 279: 443-453.
Nedelsky, J., 1989, “Reconceiving Autonomy: Sources, Thoughts and Possibilities”, Yale Journal of Law & Feminism 1: 7-36.
Nelson, L. J., and Meyer, M. J., 2005, “Confronting Deep Moral Disagreement: The President’s Council on Bioethics, Moral Status, and Human Embryos”, The American Journal of Bioethics 5: 33-42.
Pettersen, T., 2011, “The Ethics of Care: Normative Structures and Empirical Implications”, Health Care Anal 19: 51-64.
Secker, B., 1999, “The Appearance of Kant’s Deontology in Contemporary Kantianism: Concepts of Patient Autonomy in Bioethics”, The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24: 43-66.
Seymour, J., 1994, “A Pregnant Woman’s Decision to Decline Treatment: How Should the Law Respond?” Journal of Law and Medicine 2: 27-37.
Shaw, A., 1973, “Dilemmas of Informed Consent in Children”, The New England Journal of Medicine 289: 885-890.
Stohr, K. E., 2002, “Virtue Ethics and Kant’s Cold-Heated Benefactor”, The Journal of Value Inquiry 36: 187-204.
Tai, M. C., and Lin, C. S., 2001, “Developing a Culturally Relevant Bioethics for Asian people”, Journal of Medical Ethics 27: 51-54.
Thomson, J. J., 1971, “A Defense of Abortion”, Philosophy and Public Affairs 1: 47-66.
Tong, R., 1992, “Blessed Are the Peacemakers: Commentary on Making Peace in Gestational Conflicts”, Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13: 329-335.
——, 2002, “Love’s Labor in the Health Care System: Working toward Gender Equity”, Hypatia 17: 200-213.
Tronto, J. C., 2012, “Partiality Based on Relational Responsibilities: Another Approach to Global Ethics”, Ethics and Social Welfare 6: 303-316.
Warren, M. A., 1973, “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion”, The Monist 57: 43-61.
——, 1989, “The Moral Significance of Birth”, Hypatia 4: 46-65.
Weijerman, M. E., and de Winter, J. P., 2010, “The Care of Children with Down syndrome”, European Journal of Pediatrics 169: 1445-1452.

三、專書論文
李翰林,1995,〈墮胎問題新論〉,輯於錢永祥、戴華(編),《哲學與公共規範》(臺北市:中研院社科所),頁1-27。
陳瑤華,2003,〈完美的Baby?──胎兒基因篩檢的女性主義立場〉,輯於李瑞全、蔡篤堅(編),《基因治療與倫理、法律、社會意涵論文選集》(臺北市:唐山),頁93-133。
Beauchamp, T. L., 1997, “Informed consent”, in Medical Ethics, 2nd ed., edited by Robert M. Veatch, Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, pp. 185-208.
Brody, B., 1975, “Fetal Humanity and the Theory of Essentialism”, in Philosophy and Sex, edited by Robert Baker, and Frederick Elliston, Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, pp. 338-355.
Clarke, A., 1998, “Genetic counseling”, in Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, edited by Ruth Chadwick, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 391-405.
Collins, S., 2017, “Care Ethics: Four Key Claims”, in Moral Reasoning: A Text and Reader on Ethics and Contemporary Moral Issues, edited by David R. Morrow, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 192-204.
Dodds, S., 2000, “Choice and Control in Feminist Bioethics,” in Relational Autonomy: Feminist Perspectives on Autonomy, Agency, and the Social Self, edited by Catriona Mackenzie, and Natalie Stoljar, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 213-235.
Feinberg, J., 1980, “Abortion”, in Matters of Life and Death: New Introductory Essays in Moral Philosophy, edited by Tom Regan, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 183-217.
Lee, P., and George, R. P., 2014, “The Wrong of Abortion”, in Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics, 2nd ed., edited by Andrew I. Cohen, and Christopher Heath Wellman, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 37-50.
Little, M. O., 2014, “The Moral Permissibility of Abortion”, in Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics, 2nd ed., edited by Andrew I. Cohen, and Christopher Heath Wellman, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 51-62.
Manning, R. C., 2009, “A Care Approach”, in A Companion to Bioethics, 2nd ed., edited by Helga Kuhse, and Peter Singer, Malden, MA: Wiley‐Blackwell, pp. 105-116.
Noonan, J. T., Jr., 1984, “An Almost Absolute Value in History”, in The Problem of Abortion, 2nd ed., edited by Joel Feinberg, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, pp. 9-14.
Ramsay, P., 1979, “The Morality of Abortion”, in Moral Problems: A Collection of Philosophical Essays, edited by James Rachels, New York: Harper & Row, pp. 11-13.
Regan, T., 2001, “Animal Rights, Human Wrongs”, in Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, 3rd ed., edited by Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, pp. 41-53.
Singer, P., 2001, “All Animals Are Equal”, in Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, 3rd ed., edited by Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, pp. 26-40.
Sumner, L. W., 1994, “A Defense of the Moderate Position”, in The Abortion Controversy: A Reader, edited by Louis P. Pojman, and Francis J. Beckwith, London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, pp. 279-294.
Williams, B., 1973, “A Critique of Utilitarianism”, in Utilitarianism: For and Against, edited by J. J. C. Smart, and Bernard Williams, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 75-150.
Willis, E., 1992, “Abortion: Is a Woman a Person?” in Feminist Philosophies: Problems, Theories, and Applications, edited by Janet A. Kourany, James P. Sterba, and Rosemarie Tong , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, pp. 83-86.

四、網路資料
Gansberg, M., 1964, “37 Who Saw Murder Didn′t Call the Police”, The New York Times Website, URL=http://www.nytimes.com/1964/03/27/37-who-saw- murder-didnt-call-the-police.html(2018/4/27瀏覽).
Stoljar, N., 2013, “Feminist Perspectives on Autonomy”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, URL=https://stanford.library.sydney.edu.au/archives/fall2013/ entries/feminism-autonomy(2018/11/1瀏覽).

五、學位論文
石致華(研撰),李瑞全(指導),2011/06,《諾丁關懷倫理學的道德理論研究》(中壢:國立中央大學文學院哲學研究所博士論文)。
指導教授 李凱恩 審核日期 2019-1-7
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明