博碩士論文 101222013 詳細資訊




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姓名 鄭凱聿(Kai-Yu Cheng)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 物理學系
論文名稱 火花偵測器的製成
(Manufacture of the Spark Chamber)
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摘要(中) 由於現在高能物理是一門需要非常大型的實驗設施才能得到足夠高的能量向前推進的領域,我們中央大學的高能物理實驗室參與了歐洲核子研究組織(CERN)的大型強子對撞機(LHC)實驗。我們實驗室最主要的工作便是分析LHC當中的緊湊渺子線圈偵測器(CMS)的資料,但也因為如此,雖然是屬於實驗性質的實驗室但在中央卻沒有任何顯眼的實驗設施可以展示,由於高能物理是一門研究基本粒子的物理,如果我們能製造一個偵測器讓人可以看到這些所謂的基本粒子,應該會讓來參觀實驗室的學生有更深刻的印象,或許也能提高一些對於高能物理的興趣,而在眾多的粒子偵測器中,我認為火花偵測器(Spark Chamber)是最吻合我們目的的。火花偵測器是藉由空氣放電產生出來的火花來描繪出帶電粒子的移動軌跡,由於是用火花來展示軌跡,我們能直接用肉眼看見,而不需要經過電腦的運算才在螢幕上呈現,再加上火花的聲光效果,火花偵測器完全是一個很直觀、很令人印象深刻的偵測器,而且火花偵測器主要是用電路的設計來產生放電去標記粒子軌跡,並沒有什麼複雜的機械結構,就只是一堆金屬板堆疊而成,因此對於幾乎從零開始建造一個偵測器而言是一個良好的選擇。要製造一個火花偵測器,最主要的部分便是做出火花偵測器的本體和一個快速的觸發電路,但一般空氣的擊穿電壓約是30kV/cm,這是一個很高的門檻,因此首先必須用惰性氣體取代一般的空氣來有效降低擊穿電壓,在我的火花偵測器當中所使用的氣體為氦氣。但即使如此我仍然需要接近八千伏的電壓來產生火花,因此我的電路必須能把-0.8V的觸發訊號轉換成6~8kV的訊號來讓火花偵測器運作。我利用了運算放大器、絕緣閘雙極電晶體、變壓器以及火星塞來逐步放大我的訊號,而由於火花偵測器原理的關係,電壓上升所花的時間必須壓在500ns左右才能正確的顯示粒子軌跡,這使的快速放大電路成為火花偵測器中最困難且最核心的部分。最後我成功的只花500ns左右把電壓從-0.8V的方波訊號上升成8kV的放電突波並送到火花偵測器讓粒子軌跡正確的顯示出來。
摘要(英) Our group studies the high energy physics. My professor and classmates analyze the data collected by the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector in LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Therefore, in the NCU (National Central University) laboratory, we don′t have any experimental devices to show the visitors. We think that if we can show the particles to them directly, the introduction will be more attractive to them. Maybe more people will be interested in high energy physics. To show the particles, we need a particle detector. There are many particle detectors that have the different properties. We think the spark chamber is the good choice for our purpose. Spark chamber can show the particle track with the spark, the discharge in the air, so we can see the particle track by our eyes directly. It is very instinctive and impressive. Another reason is that the spark chamber doesn’t have any complex machinery structure. It is driven by electronic circuit, so it is easy to manufacture from nothing. In fact, we have the scintillator device for the trigger detector, so my project is to manufacture the high speed trigger circuit and the chamber. The breakdown voltage in the air is about 30kV/cm, so first we need change the air to reduce the breakdown voltage. The noble gas is contributive for spark chamber. However, it still needs about 10kV/cm to break. Because the gap in my chamber design is 8mm, the breakdown voltage is about 8kV. Therefore, I need to amplify the signal from -0.8V to 6~8kV even if I use the noble gas (the helium). I use the operational amplifier, insulated-gate bipolar transistor, transformer and spark plug to amplify the trigger signal step by step. To show the particle track, the total delay time can’t be larger than 500ns. The circuit part is the most difficult and important part in manufacture of the spark chamber. Success or failure almost depends on the circuit. Finally, my circuit can amplify the signal from -0.8V to -8kV and discharge pulse signal in about 500ns. It makes my spark chamber work properly.
關鍵字(中) ★ 火花
★ 粒子偵測器
★ 粒子物理
★ 高能物理
關鍵字(英) ★ spark chamber
★ particle detector
★ particle physics
★ high energy physics
論文目次 1 Elementary Particles Introduction 1
1.1 Classical Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Photon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Middle Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4 Quark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2 Introduction of particle detector 30
2.1 Cloud Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.2 Emulsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3 Bubble Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.4 Spark Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.5 Wire Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3 Trigger Circuit of Spark Chamber 41
3.1 Scintillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.2 Photomultiplier Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.3 Trigger Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.4 Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.5 Operational Amplifier(OP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.6 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.7 Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.8 Spark Plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.9 Power Supply and DC-DC Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
i3.10 Summary of Trigger Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4 Chamber 75
4.1 Gas composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.2 Chamber design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.3 O-ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.4 Test and result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.5 Design II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5 Conclusion 93
A Buleprint of Chamber I 96
B Buleprint of Chamber II 106
C Spark Plug Part 117
參考文獻 [1] David Griffths. Introduction to Elementary Particles 2nd Edition. 2008.
[2] Korytov. Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics note.
[3] Chao Li, Ute Ebert, and Willem Hundsdorfer. Spatially hybrid computations
for streamer discharges : II. Fully 3D simulations. Journal of Computational
Physics, (1020-1050), 2012.
[4] Chao Li, Ute Ebert, and W.J.M. Brok. Avalanche to streamer transition in
particle simulations. 2007.
[5] https : ==en:wikipedia:org=wiki=streamerdischarge.
[6] Jack Collins. Construction of a Prototype Spark Chamber. 2010.
[7] R. Majka W.J. Willis and W. Bergmann. High resolution optical spark chamber.
[8] C.E. Fichtel D.A. Kniffen S.M. Derdeyn, C.H. Ehrmann and R.W. Ross. Sas-b
digitized spark chamber gamma ray telescope.
[9] W. R. Leo. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments second
Revised Edition. 1994.
[10] P. de Grouchy. Construction and Evaluation of a Fast Switching Trigger Circuit
for a Cosmic Ray Detection Spark Chamber.
[11] Analog Devices. AD8067 Datasheet.
[12] Fairchild Semiconductor. HGTG12N60A4D Datasheet.
[13] Mean Well. PD2512 Datasheet.
[14] RECOM. R12-150B Datasheet.
[15] ULTRAVOLT. 10A-25A Datasheet.
[16] ULTRAVOLT. I5-I10 Option Datasheet.
[17] http://mykin.com/oring-design-guide
指導教授 郭家銘(Chia-Ming Kuo) 審核日期 2016-7-28
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