博碩士論文 101235007 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:24 、訪客IP:18.206.12.76
姓名 宣恩盈(En-Ying Hsuan)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱 視知覺相關能力以及統計學習能力對中文識字學習的影響:來自以中文為母語或外語學習者的證據
相關論文
★ The influence of experience on the SNARC effect -the mapping between sequential information and spatial representation★ 中文名詞動詞的具體效果的神經相關活動
★ 字形和語意對短期記憶的影響: 從行為及腦造影實驗而來的證據★ 中文字音與字形相似度對語言短期記憶之影響
★ 非語音訊息對中英雙語使用者的語言短期記憶的貢獻★ 中文短期記憶之字形表徵研究
★ The temporal dynamics of the code-switching between alphabetic and logographic languages in unbalancedChinese-English bilinguals★ The acquisition of Chinese literacy as a second language correlates with statistical learning of implicit transitional probability
★ 以行為及腦造影證據探討英文字音及字形相似效果對中英雙語使用者之短期記憶的影響★  The behavioral and neural correlates of orthographic lexicon and orthographic buffer in Chinese writing
★ How the Brain Deals with the Asymmetry between Chinese Subject and Object Relative Clauses: Support for a Dynamic Processing Theory★ EXPLORATION OF THE NEURAL CORRELATES OF SYNTACTIC PROCESSING IN CHINESE USING FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS
★ Correlation of statistical learning of different implicit transitional probabilities with Chinese literacy acquisition in non-native adult learners★ 字形相似性、字義相似性以及視覺相似性對於中文工作記憶的影響
★ The Characteristics and Neurophysiological Correlates of Componential Visual Statistical Learning★ 金錢酬賞之來源與其分配對公平性感知的影響
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 在先前探索和識字發展有關之認知因素的研究中,已經累積了大量研究結果支持音韻、字形及詞素覺識等能力的重要性,而另外有些相較於前者更基礎根本性的認知能力(例如:視覺相關能力),或是一些對不同領域之學習可能皆有影響的一般性能力(例如:統計學習能力),則是在近年來開始逐漸受到重視。但目前這些因素對於識字歷程的影響,大都在以拼音文字為刺激材料的研究中探討,其受試者也多為母語學習者,因此其結果是否能類推到中文的識字歷程、甚至是外語學習者身上,尚無定論。有鑑於此,本研究進行了四個實驗,檢驗各種認知因素對於習得中文字歷程的影響。具體而言,在本研究實驗一到三的橫斷性研究中,我們招募了160位台灣國小學童、63位台灣成人大學生、140位在台灣學習中文但母語為拼音文字的成年外籍生,進行了一系列的認知作業,用以測量哪些認知因子可顯著預測受試者的中文學習表現。而結果顯示,在以中文為母語或外語學習者的身上,都可觀察到視覺相關能力和視覺統計學習能力對於中文學習者的學習表現有著顯著的影響力,但這些因素並不影響已經成熟之中文讀者的識字表現。在本研究的實驗四中,我們針對68位在台灣學習中文但母語為拼音文字的成年外籍生進行長期追蹤;儘管持續學習組的中文進步幅度較停止學習組大,但視覺統計學習能力的優劣僅和沒有繼續透過正式課程學習中文之外籍生的中文字彙改變量有顯著的相關。根據以上結果,本研究支持視覺相關能力和視覺統計學習能力對於中文字習得歷程的重要性,這些因素也同時影響母語學習者和外語學習者的識字量進步幅度。
摘要(英) Previous research showed that literacy acquisition of native readers was affected by phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness. Besides, some other basic cognitive abilities (for example, visual perceptual abilities), or domain genernal abilities (such as statistical learning abilities) played a key role in learning to read, too. However, most of these studies were based on native learners of alphabetic languages. It was unclear whether the correlation could be replicated in learning a second language or learning a non-alphabetic language. In the present study, we conducted four experiments to examine whether the fundamental ability of visual perceptual skills, as well as the ability of detecting regularities in sequential stimuli, would predict the performance of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) learners in Chinese literacy tests.

A battery of cognitive tests and Chinese literacy tests were administered to 160 elementary students, 63 native college students, and 140 foreigner students whose native languages were alphabetic ones and learned Chinese as L2 in Experiment 1 to 3, respectively. The result showed that the abilities of visual perceptual skills and statistical learning of visual stimuli (VSL) affected the performance of Chinese literacy tests in L1 and L2 leaners, but did not affect the Chinese performance of participants who are mature Chinese readers.

In Experiment 4, we followed 68 native speakers of alphabetic languages recruited in Experiment 3 to examine the potential factors that have influence on the improvement of Chinese literacy after six months. Among these participants, the students who continued to take formal Chinese lessons demonstrated greater improvement in Chinese literacy than the students who did not continue to take formal lessons. However, significant correlation of VSL with the improvement of Chinese character size was only observed in participants who did not continue to take formal Chinese lessons.

To conclude, the current findings suggest that the ability of visual perceptual skills and visual statistical learning are important to Chinese literacy acquisition in both L1 and L2 learners.
關鍵字(中) ★ 視覺相關能力
★ 視覺短期記憶
★ 視知覺技巧
★ 統計學習能力
關鍵字(英) ★ Visual abilities
★ Visual short-term memory
★ VIsual skill
★ Statistical learning
論文目次 目錄

論文摘要 II

Abstract III

誌謝 IV

表格目錄 VIII

圖表目錄 IX

1 文獻回顧 1

1.1 語音 (Phonology) 2

1.1.1 聲韻處理 (Phonological processing) 能力 2

1.1.2 中文與聲韻處理能力 4

1.2 字形處理 (Orthographic processing) 能力 5

1.3 詞素覺識 (Morphorlogical awareness) 7

1.4 視覺相關能力 8

1.5 統計學習 (Statistical learning) 能力 11

1.6 研究目的 14

2 測驗介紹 15

2.1 中文能力指標 15

2.1.1 中文識字量表 15

2.1.2 朗讀速度測驗 16

2.1.3 字彙判斷測驗 16

2.1.4 快速自動唸名測驗 16

2.1.5 閱讀理解 17

2.1.6 圖畫詞彙測驗 17

2.2 語言範疇之相關認知能力指標 18

2.2.1 音韻覺識 18

2.2.2 詞素覺識 18

2.2.3 口語短期記憶測驗 19

2.3 一般基礎認知能力指標 19

2.3.1 瑞文氏圖形推理測驗 19

2.3.2 圖形設計測驗 20

2.3.3 空間短期記憶測驗 20

2.4 視覺相關能力指標 21

2.4.1 視覺短期記憶測驗 21

2.4.2 視知覺技巧測驗 21

2.5 統計學習能力 22

2.6 測驗統整 24

3 實驗一:本籍生國小學童實驗 26

3.1 受試者 26

3.2 刺激材料與實驗流程 26

3.2.1 中文閱讀指標 26

3.2.2 語文相關能力指標 26

3.2.3 一般基礎認知能力 27

3.2.4 視覺相關能力指標 27

3.3 結果 27

3.3.1 資料刪減 27

3.3.2 基本描述性統計分析 27

3.3.3 相關分析 29

3.3.4 多元迴歸分析 30

3.4 討論 33

4 實驗二:本籍生成人實驗 35

4.1 受試者 35

4.2 刺激材料與實驗流程 35

4.2.1 中文識字能力指標 35

4.2.2 語文相關能力指標 35

4.2.3 一般認知基礎能力指標 35

4.2.4 視覺相關能力指標 36

4.2.5 統計學習能力 36

4.3 結果 36

4.3.1 資料刪減 36

4.3.2 基本描述性統計分析 36

4.3.3 相關分析 39

4.4 討論 41

5 實驗三:外籍生實驗 42

5.1 受試者 42

5.2 刺激材料與實驗流程 43

5.3 結果 43

5.3.1 資料刪減 44

5.3.2 整體基本描述性統計分析 44

5.3.3 整體相關分析 48

5.3.4 整體多元迴歸分析 52

5.3.5 高識字量組基本描述性統計分析 56

5.3.6 高識字量組相關分析 59

5.3.7 高識字量組迴歸分析 63

5.4 討論 67

6 實驗四:外籍生追蹤實驗 70

6.1 受試者 70

6.2 刺激材料與實驗流程 70

6.3 結果 70

6.3.1 資料刪減 70

6.3.2 整體基本描述性統計分析 71

6.3.3 整體相關分析 75

6.3.4 持續學習組與停止學習組基本描述性統計分析 77

6.3.5 持續學習組相關分析 82

6.3.6 停止學習組相關分析 83

6.4 討論 84

7 綜合討論 86

7.1 結果總結 86

7.2 視覺短期記憶與中文識字習得 87

7.3 視知覺技巧與中文識字習得 89

7.4 統計學習能力與中文識字習得 90

7.5 聽覺統計學習能力與視覺統計學習能力 91

8 結論 91

參考文獻 93

附表 98
參考文獻 Alber, C. J. (1989). The Most Recent List of 3000 Most Commonly-Used Characters and Their Phonetics. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 24(1), 97-104.

Anglin, J. M., Miller, G. A., & Wakefield, P. C. (1993). Vocabulary development: A morphological analysis. Monographs of the society for research in child development, i-186.

Arciuli, J., & Simpson, I. C. (2011). Statistical learning in typically developing children: the role of age and speed of stimulus presentation. Developmental Science, 14(3), 464-473.

Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. Psychology of learning and motivation, 8, 47-89.

Bowers, P. G., & Wolf, M. (1993). Theoretical links among naming speed, precise timing mechanisms and orthographic skill in dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 5(1), 69-85.

Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organisation as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature.

Carlisle, J. F. (2000). Awareness of the structure and meaning of morphologically complex words: Impact on reading. Reading and Writing, 12(3), 169-190.

Della Sala, S., Baddeley, A. D., Gray, C., & Wilson, L. (1997). Visual Patterns Test: VPT: Harcourt.

Della Sala, S., Gray, C., Baddeley, A., Allamano, N., & Wilson, L. (1999). Pattern span: a tool for unwelding visuo–spatial memory. Neuropsychologia, 37(10), 1189-1199.

Estes, K. G., Evans, J. L., Alibali, M. W., & Saffran, J. R. (2007). Can infants map meaning to newly segmented words? Statistical segmentation and word learning. Psychological science, 18(3), 254-260.

Evans, J. L., Saffran, J. R., & Robe-Torres, K. (2009). Statistical learning in children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52(2), 321-335.

Frost, R., Siegelman, N., Narkiss, A., & Afek, L. (2013). What predicts successful literacy acquisition in a second language? Psychological science, 24(7), 1243-1252.

Gathercole, S. E., Service, E., Hitch, G. J., Adams, A. M., & Martin, A. J. (1999). Phonological short‐term memory and vocabulary development: further evidence on the nature of the relationship. Applied cognitive psychology, 13(1), 65-77.

Hansen, P. C., Stein, J. F., Orde, S. R., Winter, J. L., & Talcott, J. B. (2001). Are dyslexics’ visual deficits limited to measures of dorsal stream function? Neuroreport, 12(7), 1527-1530.

Ho, C. S.-H., & Bryant, P. (1997a). Phonological skills are important in learning to read Chinese. Developmental psychology, 33(6), 946.

Ho, C. S.-H., & Bryant, P. (1997b). Phonological skills are important in learning to read Chinese. Developmental psychology, 33(6), 946.

Hu, C.-F., & Catts, H. W. (1998a). The role of phonological processing in early reading ability: What we can learn from Chinese. Scientific Studies of Reading, 2(1), 55-79.

Katz, L., & Frost, R. (1992b). The reading process is different for different orthographies: The orthographic depth hypothesis. Advances in Psychology, 94, 67-84.

Koyama, M. S., Hansen, P. C., & Stein, J. F. (2008). Logographic Kanji versus phonographic Kana in literacy acquisition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1145(1), 41-55.

Kratzmeier, H., & Raven, J. C. (1980). RAVEN-Matrizen-Test: Advanced Progressive Matrices; APM; Manual: Beltz.

Ku, Y.-M., & Anderson, R. C. (2003). Development of morphological awareness in Chinese and English. Reading and Writing, 16(5), 399-422.

Lee, C.-Y., Tsai, J.-L., Chiu, Y.-C., Tzeng, O. J., & Hung, D. L. (2006). The early extraction of sublexical phonology in reading Chinese pseudocharacters: an event-related potentials study.

Li, H., Peng, H., & Shu, H. (2006). A study on the emergence and development of Chinese orthographic awareness in preschool and school children. Psychological Development and Education, 18(1), 35-38.

Li, H., Shu, H., McBride‐Chang, C., Liu, H., & Peng, H. (2012). Chinese children′s character recognition: Visuo‐orthographic, phonological processing and morphological skills. Journal of Research in Reading, 35(3), 287-307.

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Fischer, F. W., & Carter, B. (1974). Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in the young child. Journal of experimental child psychology, 18(2), 201-212.

Martin, N. A. (2006). Test of visual-perceptual skills: 3rd edition: Academic Therapy Publications.

McBride-Chang, C., Chow, B. W., Zhong, Y., Burgess, S., & Hayward, W. G. (2005). Chinese character acquisition and visual skills in two Chinese scripts. Reading and Writing, 18(2), 99-128.

McBride-Chang, C., Shu, H., Zhou, A., Wat, C. P., & Wagner, R. K. (2003). Morphological awareness uniquely predicts young children′s Chinese character recognition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 743.

McBride-Chang, C., Zhou, Y., Cho, J.-R., Aram, D., Levin, I., & Tolchinsky, L. (2011). Visual spatial skill: a consequence of learning to read? Journal of experimental child psychology, 109(2), 256-262.

McBride‐Chang, C., Lam, F., Lam, C., Chan, B., Fong, C. Y. C., Wong, T. T. Y., & Wong, S. W. L. (2011). Early predictors of dyslexia in Chinese children: Familial history of dyslexia, language delay, and cognitive profiles. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(2), 204-211.

Misyak, J. B., & Christiansen, M. H. (2012). Statistical learning and language: an individual differences study. Language Learning, 62(1), 302-331.

Rohl, M., & Pratt, C. (1995). Phonological awareness, verbal working memory and the acquisition of literacy. Reading and Writing, 7(4), 327-360.

Saffran, J. R. (2002). Constraints on statistical language learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 47(1), 172-196.

Saffran, J. R., Aslin, R. N., & Newport, E. L. (1996). Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science, 274(5294), 1926-1928.

Shih, H.-Y. (2013). The acquisition of Chinese literacy as a second language correlates with statistical learning of implicit transitional probability.

Shu, H., McBride-Chang, C., Wu, S., & Liu, H. (2006). Understanding chinese developmental dyslexia: Morphological awareness as a core cognitive construct. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 122.

Siok, W. T., & Fletcher, P. (2001). The role of phonological awareness and visual-orthographic skills in Chinese reading acquisition. Developmental psychology, 37(6), 886.

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1989). Exposure to print and orthographic processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 402-433.

Talcott, J. B., Witton, C., McLean, M. F., Hansen, P. C., Rees, A., Green, G. G., & Stein, J. F. (2000). Dynamic sensory sensitivity and children′s word decoding skills. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(6), 2952-2957.

Turk-Browne, N. B., Jungé, J. A., & Scholl, B. J. (2005). The automaticity of visual statistical learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134(4), 552.

Turk-Browne, N. B., Scholl, B. J., Chun, M. M., & Johnson, M. K. (2009). Neural evidence of statistical learning: Efficient detection of visual regularities without awareness. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 21(10), 1934-1945.

Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological bulletin, 101(2), 192.

Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental psychology, 30(1), 73.

Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., Hecht, S. A., Barker, T. A., Burgess, S. R., . . . Garon, T. (1997). Changing relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading as children develop from beginning to skilled readers: a 5-year longitudinal study. Developmental psychology, 33(3), 468.

Witton, C., Talcott, J., Hansen, P., Richardson, A., Griffiths, T., Rees, A., . . . Green, G. (1998). Sensitivity to dynamic auditory and visual stimuli predicts nonword reading ability in both dyslexic and normal readers. Current biology, 8(14), 791-797.

Wolf, M. (1984). Naming, reading, and the dyslexias: A longitudinal overview. Annals of dyslexia, 34(1), 87-115.

Yang, L.-Y., Guo, J.-P., Richman, L. C., Schmidt, F. L., Gerken, K. C., & Ding, Y. (2013). Visual skills and Chinese reading acquisition: A meta-analysis of correlation evidence. Educational Psychology Review, 25(1), 115-143.

中央研究院中文詞知識庫小組. (民82). 新聞語料字頻統計表. Retrieved from

俞筱鈞. (1993). 瑞文氏圖形推理測驗指導手冊. 台北: 中國行為科學社.

周裕欽. (2002). 不同類型的工作記憶與中文閱讀理解的相關研究. 花蓮師院學報(14), 123-142.

孟祥芝, 周晓林, 曾飚, 孔瑞芬, & 庄捷. (2002). 动态视觉加工与儿童汉字阅读. 心理学报, 34(1), 16-22.

施欣怡. (2013). The acquisition of Chinese literacy as a second: language correlates with statistical learning of implicit transitional probability.

李俊仁, & 柯華葳. (2009). 台灣學生聲韻覺識作業之聲韻表徵運作單位. 教育心理學報, 41(1), 111-124.

柯華葳, & 詹益綾. (2006). 國民小學 (二至六年級) 閱讀理解篩選測驗. 台北: 教育部.

王瓊珠, 洪儷瑜, & 陳秀芬. (2007). 低識字能力學生識字量發展之研究. 特殊教育研究學刊.

陸莉, & 劉鴻香. (1994). 修訂畢保德圖畫詞彙測驗. 台北: 心理.

黃秀霜. (2001). 中文年級認字量表. 台北: 心理.
指導教授 吳嫻(Denise Hsien Wu) 審核日期 2015-8-27
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明